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Author Muheim, R.; Phillips, J.B.; Akesson, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal (down) Science  
  Volume 313 Issue 5788 Pages 837-839  
  Keywords Alaska; *Animal Migration; Animals; Calibration; Cues; *Flight, Animal; Geography; *Light; Magnetics; *Orientation; Seasons; Sparrows/*physiology; Sunlight  
  Abstract Migratory songbirds use the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun, and polarized light patterns to determine their migratory direction. To prevent navigational errors, it is necessary to calibrate all of these compass systems to a common reference. We show that migratory Savannah sparrows use polarized light cues from the region of sky near the horizon to recalibrate the magnetic compass at both sunrise and sunset. We suggest that skylight polarization patterns are used to derive an absolute (i.e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses of migratory songbirds.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. rmuheim@vt.edu  
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  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16902138 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 243  
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Author Lewy, A.; Wehr, T.; Goodwin, F.; Newsome, D.; Markey, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal (down) Science  
  Volume 210 Issue 4475 Pages 1267-1269  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Bright artificial light suppressed nocturnal secretion of melatonin in six normal human subjects. Room light of less intensity, which is sufficient to suppress melatonin secretion in other mammals, failed to do so in humans. In contrast to the results of previous experiments in which ordinary room light was used, these findings establish that the human response to light is qualitatively similar to that of other mammals.  
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  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 534  
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Author Riegel, K.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal (down) Science  
  Volume 179 Issue 4080 Pages 1285-1291  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract There have been major qualitative and quantitative changes in outdoor lighting technology in the last decade. The level of skylight caused by outdoor lighting systems is growing at a very high rate, about 20 percent per year nationwide. In addition, the spectral distribution of man-made light pollution may change in the next decade from one containing a few mercury lines to one containing dozens of lines and a significantly increased continuum level. Light pollution is presently damaging to some astronomical programs, and it is likely to become a major factor limiting progress in the next decade. Suitable sites in the United States for new dark sky observing facilities are very difficult to find. Some of the increase in outdoor illumination is due to the character of national growth and development. Some is due to promotional campaigns, in which questionable arguments involving public safety are presented. There are protective measures which might be adopted by the government; these would significantly aid observational astronomy, without compromising the legitimate outdoor lighting needs of society. Observatories should establish programs to routinely monitor sky brightness as a function of position, wavelength, and time. The astronomical community should establish a mechanism by which such programs can be supported and coordinated.  
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  Notes PMID:17835929 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 566  
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Author Berson, D.M.; Dunn, F.A.; Takao, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal (down) Science  
  Volume 295 Issue 5557 Pages 1070-1073  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Axons/ultrastructure; *Biological Clocks; *Circadian Rhythm; Dendrites/ultrastructure; Isoquinolines; Kinetics; Light; *Light Signal Transduction; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Retinal Ganglion Cells/chemistry/cytology/*physiology; Rod Opsins/analysis/physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/cytology/*physiology  
  Abstract Light synchronizes mammalian circadian rhythms with environmental time by modulating retinal input to the circadian pacemaker-the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Such photic entrainment requires neither rods nor cones, the only known retinal photoreceptors. Here, we show that retinal ganglion cells innervating the SCN are intrinsically photosensitive. Unlike other ganglion cells, they depolarized in response to light even when all synaptic input from rods and cones was blocked. The sensitivity, spectral tuning, and slow kinetics of this light response matched those of the photic entrainment mechanism, suggesting that these ganglion cells may be the primary photoreceptors for this system.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912 USA. David_Berson@brown.edu  
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  Notes PMID:11834835 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 720  
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Author Czeisler, C.; Weitzman, E.; Moore-Ede, M.; Zimmerman, J.; Knauer, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human sleep: its duration and organization depend on its circadian phase Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal (down) Science  
  Volume 210 Issue 4475 Pages 1264-1267  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 731  
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