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Author Blask, D.; Brainard, G.; Gibbons, R.; Lockley, S.; Stevens, R.; Motta, M. openurl 
  Title Light Pollution: Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Report 4 of the Council on Science and Public Health, American Medical Association. Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 508  
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Author Warthen, D.M.; Provencio, I. url  openurl
  Title The role of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming responses to light Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Eye and Brain Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages 43—48  
  Keywords Human Health; amygdala; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; melanopsin; opsin; optic nerve; retina  
  Abstract Light exerts many effects on behavior and physiology. These effects can be characterized as either image-forming or nonimage-forming (NIF) visual processes. Image-forming vision refers to the process of detecting objects and organisms in the environment and distinguishing their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction of motion. NIF vision, in contrast, refers to effects of light that are independent of fine spatiotemporal vision. NIF effects are many and varied, ranging from modulation of basal physiology, such as heart rate and body temperature, to changes in higher functions, such as mood and cognitive performance. In mammals, many NIF effects of light are dependent upon the inner retinal photopigment melanopsin and the cells in which melanopsin is expressed, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs project broadly throughout the brain. Many of these projections terminate in areas known to mediate NIF effects, while others terminate in regions whose link to photoreception remains to be established. Additionally, the presence of ipRGC projections to areas of the brain with no known link to photoreception suggests the existence of additional ipRGC-mediated NIF effects. This review summarizes the known NIF effects of light and the role of melanopsin and ipRGCs in driving these effects, with an eye toward stimulating further investigation of the many and varied effects of light on physiology and behavior.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 519  
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Author Benke, K.E.; Benke, K.K.; Dimitriadis, C. url  openurl
  Title Spectral content of artificial lighting and effects on health. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 13-15  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract There is an increasing body of evidence indicating possible health effects from prolonged exposure to artificial lighting after dark. Both compact fluorescent lights and light emitting diode lamps have a greater proportion of blue light in the emission spectrum than the older incandescent light sources. Exposure to the blue light component at night has been the subject of ongoing research, with a number of published studies linking blue light content to the disruption of the internal body clock, suppression of melatonin production and various ocular effects. Aside from short-term discomfort, possible health effects include long-term chronic illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A brief review of recent research is provided, salient health issues are noted and discussed, and some examples of exposure minimisation strategies are suggested.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 520  
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Rosales-Corral, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Antonio Boga, J.; Tan, D.X.; Davis, J.M.; Konturek, P.C.; Konturek, S.J.; Brzozowski, T. url  openurl
  Title The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal and gut melatonin. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 269-274  
  Keywords Human Health; biological clock; chronodisruption; circadian rhythm; gastrointestinal melatonin; peptic ulcer; pineal gland; suprachiasmatic nucleus  
  Abstract Biological rhythms are essential for optimal health (1, 2). Throughout the course of human evolution, hominids were exposed to regularly alternating periods of light and dark during every 24-hour period. This evolutionary period, which for humans may have lasted for three million or more years, allowed species to take advantage of the light:dark cycle to adjust their physiology and to synchronize it with the prevailing light:dark environment. To take advantage of this information, vertebrates, including hominids, evolved a group of neurons to monitor the photoperiodic environment and to adjust organismal, organ and cellular function accordingly.

This paired group of light-responsive neurons is located in the mediobasal preoptic area at the diencephalic-telencephalic junction just anterior to the hypothalamus. Since these neurons lie immediately above the decussating axons of the optic nerve, i.e., the optic chiasma, they are named the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) (3, 4). The SCN orchestrate all known circadian rhythms in vertebrates and are referred to as the master biological clock or the central rhythm generator.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 522  
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Author Chepesiuk, R. url  openurl
  Title Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages A20-A27  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 526  
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