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Author Navara, K.J.; Nelson, R.J.
Title The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 215-224
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks; *Darkness; Disease; Ecology; Humans; Oxidative Stress; Work
Abstract Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result.
Address Department of Psychology, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. knavara@gmail.com
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ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17803517 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 17
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Author Gerrish, G.A.; Morin, J.G.; Rivers, T.J.; Patrawala, Z.
Title Darkness as an ecological resource: the role of light in partitioning the nocturnal niche Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume 160 Issue 3 Pages 525-536
Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Belize; Crustacea/*physiology; *Darkness; *Ecosystem; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Linear Models; Motor Activity/*physiology; Photoperiod; Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology; Water Movements
Abstract Nocturnal behaviors that vary as a function of light intensity, either from the setting sun or the moon, are typically labeled as circadian or circalunar. Both of these terms refer to endogenous time-dependent behaviors. In contrast, the nightly reproductive and feeding behaviors of Vargula annecohenae, a bioluminescent ostracod (Arthropoda: Crustacea) fluctuate in response to light intensity, an exogenous factor that is not strictly time-dependent. We measured adult and juvenile activity of V. annecohenae throughout lunar cycles in January/February and June 2003. Overnight and nightly measurements of foraging and reproductive behavior of adult V. annecohenae indicated that activity was greatest when a critical “dark threshold” was reached and that the dark threshold for adult V. annecohenae is met when less than a third of the moon is visible or at the intensity of light 2-3 min before the start of nautical twilight when no moon is illuminated. Juvenile V. annecohenae were also nocturnally active but demonstrated little or no response to lunar illumination, remaining active even during brightly moonlit periods. In addition to light level, water velocity also influenced the behaviors of V. annecohenae, with fewer juveniles and adults actively foraging on nights when water velocity was high (>25 cm/s). Our data demonstrate that the strongest environmental factor influencing adult feeding and reproductive behaviors of V. annecohenae is the availability of time when illumination is below the critical dark threshold. This dependence on darkness for successful growth and reproduction allows us to classify darkness as a resource, in the same way that the term has been applied to time, space and temperature.
Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. ggerrish@nd.edu
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ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19330516 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 16
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Author Horváth, G.; Kriska, G.; Malik, P.; Robertson, B.
Title Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 317-325
Keywords light pollution; polarization; polarized light pollution
Abstract The alteration of natural cycles of light and dark by artificial light sources has deleterious impacts on animals and ecosystems. Many animals can also exploit a unique characteristic of light – its direction of polarization –as a source of information. We introduce the term “polarized light pollution” (PLP) to focus attention on the ecological consequences of light that has been polarized through interaction with human-made objects. Unnatural polarized light sources can trigger maladaptive behaviors in polarization-sensitive taxa and alter ecological interactions. PLP is an increasingly common byproduct of human technology, and mitigating its effects through selective use of building materials is a realistic solution. Our understanding of how most species use polarization vision is limited, but the capacity of PLP to drastically increase mortality and reproductive failure in animal populations suggests that PLP should become a focus for conservation biologists and resource managers alike.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (down)
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 22
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.
Volume 116 Issue D24 Pages
Keywords aeroecology; ecological light pollution; light pollution; moonlight; nocturnal navigation; polarized light
Abstract On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow pwould likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (down)
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 21
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages e17307
Keywords Berlin; *Cities; *Ecosystem; Environmental Pollution/*adverse effects/analysis; *Light; Seasons; *Weather
Abstract The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this “ecological light pollution”. We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.
Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21399694; PMCID:PMC3047560 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 20
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