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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K. M., & Schieck, A. F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Designing digital displays and interactive media in today’s cities by night. Do we know enough about attracting attention to do so? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Conscious Cities Anthology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Lighting  
  Abstract (down) With the huge transformation in the development of digital screen technology and its consistently decreasing cost, digital billboards are progressively replacing traditional static, two-dimensional poster advertisements in our cities1. Previously, due to the substantial expenditure involved, they were only available to major international brands with vast promotional resources to build their brand fame. Today, however, they are being used increasingly by advertisers to deliver all kinds of messages from simple ones to more sophisticated, interactive storytelling. Soon, however, even newer ways of purchasing advertisements using computers will be introduced by the outdoor media industry to address the public, so potentially everybody will be able to rent out available advertising space and communicate the message. But are we ready for this next step? As there are no proper guidelines or regulations in place for this new medium in the urban realm, today we are facing issues such as no integration of the display’s location into the built environment, no specifications based on knowledge of human perception and the human centric design approach, no control over its content quality, and so called ‘display blindness’2 seems to be a common collective urban experience at night. Taking London as one of the most cutting-edge outdoor digital advertising environments in the world3 (with the largest number of these screens traditionally located in or in close proximity to Piccadilly Circus) this paper discusses various aspects of this new medium. Besides the layout and geometry of the space, it also focuses on navigation and attracting the visual attention of passers-by at night in a practical human oriented context. Additionally, questions regarding complex sensory, social, special and interactional issues and the necessity for interdisciplinary collaboration have been addressed.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2351  
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Author Coesfeld, J.; Anderson, S.; Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.; Schernthanner, H.; Kyba, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Variation of Individual Location Radiance in VIIRS DNB Monthly Composite Images Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 10 Issue 12 Pages 1964  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract (down) With the growing size and use of night light time series from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day/Night Band (DNB), it is important to understand the stability of the dataset. All satellites observe differences in pixel values during repeat observations. In the case of night light data, these changes can be due to both environmental effects and changes in light emission. Here we examine the stability of individual locations of particular large scale light sources (e.g., airports and prisons) in the monthly composites of DNB data from April 2012 to September 2017. The radiances for individual pixels of most large light emitters are approximately normally distributed, with a standard deviation of typically 15–20% of the mean. Greenhouses and flares, however, are not stable sources. We observe geospatial autocorrelation in the monthly variations for nearby sites, while the correlation for sites separated by large distances is small. This suggests that local factors contribute most to the variation in the pixel radiances and furthermore that averaging radiances over large areas will reduce the total variation. A better understanding of the causes of temporal variation would improve the sensitivity of DNB to lighting changes.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2129  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity  
  Abstract (down) With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 28  
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Author Gibbons, R.; Terry, T.; Bhagavathula, R.; Meyer, J.; Lewis, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Applicability of mesopic factors to the driving task Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 70-82  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning  
  Abstract (down) With the advent of light-emitting diode technology being applied to roadway lighting, the spectral power distribution of the light source is becoming much more important. In this experiment, the detection of pedestrians at five adaptation levels under three light sources, high pressure sodium and light emitting diodes of two colour temperatures was measured in realistic roadway scenarios. The results show that while the light source type was not significant, an increase in adaptation luminance increased the detection distance. As the offset of the object to the roadway increased, some spectral effects became more significant; however, this effect was not consistent across all angles of eccentricity. The conclusions from this work indicate that mesopic factors may not be applicable on high-speed roads.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1382  
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Author Leng, W.; He, G.; Jiang, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating the Spatiotemporal Variability and Driving Factors of Artificial Lighting in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Using Remote Sensing Imagery and Socioeconomic Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 16 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (down) With rapid urbanization and economic development, artificial lighting at night brings convenience to human life but also causes a considerable urban environmental pollution issue. This study employed the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, nighttime light indices, and the standard deviation method to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of artificial lighting in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Moreover, nighttime light imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System, socioeconomic data, and high-resolution satellite images were combined to comprehensively explore the driving factors of urban artificial lighting change. The results showed the following: (1) Overall, there was an increasing trend in artificial lighting in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which accounted for approximately 56.87% of the total study area. (2) The change in artificial lighting in the entire area was relatively stable. The artificial lighting in the northwest area changed faster than that in the southeast area, and the areas where artificial lighting changed the most were Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. (3) The fastest growth of artificial lighting was in Chengde and Zhangjiakou, where the rates of increase were 334% and 251%, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of artificial lighting in economically developed cities was higher than that in economically underdeveloped cities such as Chengde and Zhangjiakou. (4) Multi-source data were combined to analyse the driving factors of urban artificial lighting in the entire area. The Average Population of Districts under City (R(2) = 0.77) had the strongest effect on artificial lighting. Total Passenger Traffic (R(2) = 0.54) had the most non-obvious effect. At different city levels, driving factors varied with differences of economy, geographical location, and the industrial structures of cities. Urban expansion, transportation hubs, and industries were the major reasons for the significant change in nighttime light. Urban artificial lighting represents a trend of overuse closely related to nighttime light pollution. This study of artificial lighting contributes to the rational planning of urban lighting systems, the prevention and control of nighttime light pollution, and the creation of liveable and ecologically green cities.  
  Address China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing 100038, China. jiangwei@radi.ac.cn  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31159391 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2535  
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