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Author Skeldon, A.C.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Dijk, D.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of self-selected light-dark cycles and social constraints on human sleep and circadian timing: a modeling approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 45158  
  Keywords human health, lighting  
  Abstract (down) Why do we go to sleep late and struggle to wake up on time? Historically, light-dark cycles were dictated by the solar day, but now humans can extend light exposure by switching on artificial lights. We use a mathematical model incorporating effects of light, circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis to provide a quantitative theoretical framework to understand effects of modern patterns of light consumption on the human circadian system. The model shows that without artificial light humans wakeup at dawn. Artificial light delays circadian rhythmicity and preferred sleep timing and compromises synchronisation to the solar day when wake-times are not enforced. When wake-times are enforced by social constraints, such as work or school, artificial light induces a mismatch between sleep timing and circadian rhythmicity ('social jet-lag'). The model implies that developmental changes in sleep homeostasis and circadian amplitude make adolescents particularly sensitive to effects of light consumption. The model predicts that ameliorating social jet-lag is more effectively achieved by reducing evening light consumption than by delaying social constraints, particularly in individuals with slow circadian clocks or when imposed wake-times occur after sunrise. These theory-informed predictions may aid design of interventions to prevent and treat circadian rhythm-sleep disorders and social jet-lag.  
  Address University of Surrey, Surrey Sleep Research Centre, Guildford, GU2 7XP, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28345624 Approved no  
  Call Number SU @ spitschan @ Serial 1638  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Cruse, D.; Blumgart, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multiple night-time light-emitting diode lighting strategies impact grassland invertebrate assemblages Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 2641-2648  
  Keywords Ecology; grasslands; LED  
  Abstract (down) White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are rapidly replacing conventional outdoor lighting technologies around the world. Despite rising concerns over their impact on the environment and human health, the flexibility of LEDs has been advocated as a means of mitigating the ecological impacts of globally widespread outdoor night-time lighting through spectral manipulation, dimming and switching lights off during periods of low demand. We conducted a three-year field experiment in which each of these lighting strategies was simulated in a previously artificial light naive grassland ecosystem. White LEDs both increased the total abundance and changed the assemblage composition of adult spiders and beetles. Dimming LEDs by 50% or manipulating their spectra to reduce ecologically damaging wavelengths partially reduced the number of commoner species affected from seven to four. A combination of dimming by 50% and switching lights off between midnight and 04:00 am showed the most promise for reducing the ecological costs of LEDs, but the abundances of two otherwise common species were still affected. The environmental consequences of using alternative lighting technologies are increasingly well established. These results suggest that while management strategies using LEDs can be an effective means of reducing the number of taxa affected, averting the ecological impacts of night-time lighting may ultimately require avoiding its use altogether.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28139040 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1634  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author S Fotios, HF Castleton url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting for cycling in the UK—A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 381-395  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Public Safety  
  Abstract (down) While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that the current lighting regulations and recommendations for cycling and cyclists are the best that can be achieved or are even adequate for these purposes. A number of actions are suggested that should enable lighting’s contribution to the safety of cyclists to be realized.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1766  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street Lighting and Public Safety: New Nighttime Lighting Documentation Method Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication ARCC Conference Repository Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract (down) While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2103  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jin, H.; Jin, S.; Chen, L.; Cen, S.; Yuan, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Research on the Lighting Performance of LED Street Lights With Different Color Temperatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication IEEE Photonics Journal Abbreviated Journal IEEE Photonics J.  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Lighting; LED; light-emitting diodes; PC-LED; dark adaption; color perception; fog; skyglow  
  Abstract (down) While light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a very efficient lighting option, whether phosphor-coated LEDs (PC-LEDs) are suitable for street lighting remains to be tested. Correlated color temperature (CCT), mesopic vision illuminance, dark adaption, color perception, fog penetration, and skyglow pollution are important factors that determine alight's suitability for street lighting. In this paper, we have closely examined the lighting performance of LED street lights with different color temperatures and found that low-color-temperature (around 3000 K) PC-LEDs are more suitable for street lighting.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IEEE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1943-0655 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1307  
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