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Author Davies, T.W.; McKee, D.; Fishwick, J.; Tidau, S.; Smyth, T.
Title Biologically important artificial light at night on the seafloor Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 12545
Keywords Ecology; Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract Accelerating coastal development is increasing the exposure of marine ecosystems to nighttime light pollution, but is anthropogenic light reaching the seafloor in sufficient quantities to have ecological impacts? Using a combination of mapping, and radiative transfer modelling utilising in situ measurements of optical seawater properties, we quantified artificial light exposure at the sea surface, beneath the sea surface, and at the sea floor of an urbanised temperate estuary bordered by an LED lit city. Up to 76% of the three-dimensional seafloor area was exposed to biologically important light pollution. Exposure to green wavelengths was highest, while exposure to red wavelengths was nominal. We conclude that light pollution from coastal cities is likely having deleterious impacts on seafloor ecosystems which provide vital ecosystem services. A comprehensive understanding of these impacts is urgently needed.
Address (down) Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Devon, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32719492; PMCID:PMC7385152 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3071
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Author Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T.
Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants
Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.
Address (down) Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054
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Author Underwood, C.N.; Davies, T.W.; Queiros, A.M.
Title Artificial light at night alters trophic interactions of intertidal invertebrates Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 86 Issue 4 Pages 781-789
Keywords Animals
Abstract Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores. In the laboratory, we investigated whether the basal and foraging activity of this predator was affected by exposure to night-time lighting both in the presence and absence of olfactory predator cues (Carcinus maenas, common shore crab). Assessments of dogwhelks' behavioural responses to night-time white LED lighting were performed on individuals that had been acclimated to night-time white LED lighting conditions for 16 days and individuals that had not previously been exposed to artificial light at night. Dogwhelks acclimated to night-time lighting exhibited natural refuge-seeking behaviour less often compared to control animals, but were more likely to respond to and handle prey irrespective of whether olfactory predator cues were present. These responses suggest night-time lighting likely increased the energetic demand of dogwhelks through stress, encouraging foraging whenever food was available, regardless of potential danger. Contrastingly, whelks not acclimated under night-time lighting were more likely to respond to the presence of prey under artificial light at night when olfactory predator cues were present, indicating an opportunistic shift towards the use of visual instead of olfactory cues in risk evaluation. These results demonstrate that artificial night-time lighting influences the behaviour of intertidal fauna such that the balance of interspecific interactions involved in community structuring may be affected.
Address (down) Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, PL1 3DH, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28452048 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1661
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Author Raven, J.A.; Cockell, C.S.
Title Influence on photosynthesis of starlight, moonlight, planetlight, and light pollution (reflections on photosynthetically active radiation in the universe) Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Astrobiology Abbreviated Journal Astrobiology
Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 668-675
Keywords Plants
Abstract Photosynthesis on Earth can occur in a diversity of organisms in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range of 10 nmol of photons m(-2) s(-1) to 8 mmol of photons m(-2) s(-1). Similar considerations would probably apply to photosynthetic organisms on Earth-like planets (ELPs) in the continuously habitable zone of other stars. On Earth, starlight PAR is inadequate for photosynthetically supported growth. An increase in starlight even to reach the minimum theoretical levels to allow for photosynthesis would require a universe that was approximately ten million times older, or with a ten million times greater density of stars, than is the case for the present universe. Photosynthesis on an ELP using PAR reflected from a natural satellite with the same size as our Moon, but at the Roche limit, could support a low rate of photosynthesis at full Moon. Photosynthesis on an ELP-like satellite of a Jupiter-sized planet using light reflected from the planet could be almost 1% of the rate in full sunlight on Earth when the planet was full. These potential contributions to photosynthesis require that the contribution is compared with the rate of photosynthesis driven by direct radiation from the star. Light pollution on Earth only energizes photosynthesis by organisms that are very close to the light source. However, effects of light pollution on photosynthesis can be more widespread if the photosynthetic canopy is retained for more of the year, caused by effects on photoperiodism, with implications for the influence of civilizations on photosynthesis.
Address (down) Plant Research Unit, University of Dundee at SCRI, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1557-8070 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16916290 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1198
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Author Donners, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Groenendijk, D.; van Langevelde, F.; Bikker, J.W.; Longcore, T.; Veenendaal, E.
Title Colors of attraction: Modeling insect flight to light behavior Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 434-440
Keywords Animals; ecology; Lighting
Abstract Light sources attract nocturnal flying insects, but some lamps attract more insects than others. The relation between the properties of a light source and the number of attracted insects is, however, poorly understood. We developed a model to quantify the attractiveness of light sources based on the spectral output. This model is fitted using data from field experiments that compare a large number of different light sources. We validated this model using two additional datasets, one for all insects and one excluding the numerous Diptera. Our model facilitates the development and application of light sources that attract fewer insects without the need for extensive field tests and it can be used to correct for spectral composition when formulating hypotheses on the ecological impact of artificial light. In addition, we present a tool allowing the conversion of the spectral output of light sources to their relative insect attraction based on this model.
Address (down) Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29944198 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1944
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