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Author Leskey, T.; Lee, D.-H.; Glenn, D.; Morrison, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioral Responses of the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (StÃ¥l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Light-Based Stimuli in the Laboratory and Field Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Insect Behavior Abbreviated Journal J. of Insect Behav.  
  Volume 28 Issue 6 Pages 674-692  
  Keywords Animals; Brown marmorated stink bug; light trap; visual ecology; IPM; wavelength; Halyomorpha halys; invasive species  
  Abstract Halyomorpha halys (StÃ¥l), brown marmorated stink bug, is an invasive insect native to Asia that was accidentally introduced into the United States. The species is a polyphagous pest that has caused serious economic injury to specialty and row crops in the mid-Atlantic region. Growers have targeted H. halys with broad-spectrum materials by increasing the number of and decreasing the interval between insecticide applications. While it is known that adults reliably respond to semiochemical cues, much less is known about the response of H. halys to visual stimuli. Field observations suggest that H. halys adults respond to light-based stimuli, with large aggregations of adults documented at outdoor light sources and captured in commercial blacklight traps. Therefore, we conducted a series of studies aimed at identifying optimal wavelengths and intensities of light attractive to H. halys adults. We found that intensity and wavelength of light affected H. halys response in the laboratory and field. In the laboratory, H. halys demonstrated positive phototactic responses to full-spectrum and wavelength-restricted stimuli at a range of intensities, though the levels of stimulus acceptance and attraction, respectively, changed according to intensity. The species is most attracted to white, blue and black (ultraviolet) wavelength-restricted stimuli in the laboratory and field. In the field, traps baited with blue light sources were less attractive to non-target insect species, but white light sources were more attractive to H. halys indicating that these two light sources may be good candidates for inclusion in light-based monitoring traps.  
  Address (down) USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV, 25430-2771, USA; tracy.leskey(at)ars.usda.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0892-7553 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1300  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Farnworth, B.; Innes, J.; Waas, J.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Converting Predation Cues into Conservation Tools: The Effect of Light on Mouse Foraging Behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages e0145432  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Prey face a conflict between acquiring energy and avoiding predators and use both direct and indirect cues to assess predation risk. Illumination, an indirect cue, influences nocturnal rodent foraging behaviour. New Zealand holds no native rodent species but has introduced mice (Mus musculus) that severely impair native biodiversity. We used Giving-Up Densities (GUDs) and observations of foraging frequency and duration to assess if artificial light induces risk avoidance behaviour in mice and could limit their activity. We found both captive (wild strain) mice in outdoor pens and wild mice within a pest fenced sanctuary (Maungatautari, New Zealand) displayed avoidance behaviour in response to illumination. In captivity, total foraging effort was similar across lit and unlit pens but mice displayed a strong preference for removing seeds from dark control areas (mean: 15.33 SD: +/-11.64 per 3.5 hours) over illuminated areas (2.00 +/-3.44). Wild mice also removed fewer seeds from illuminated areas (0.42 +/-1.00 per 12 hours) compared to controls (6.67 +/-9.20). Captive mice spent less than 1.0% of available time at illuminated areas, versus 11.3% at controls; visited the lit areas less than control areas (12.00 +/- 9.77 versus 29.00 +/-21.58 visits respectively); and spent less time per visit at illuminated versus control areas (8.17 +/-7.83 versus 44.83 +/-87.52 seconds per visit respectively). Illumination could provide protection at ecologically sensitive sites, damaged exclusion fences awaiting repair, fence terminus zones of peninsula sanctuaries and shipping docks that service offshore islands. We promote the hypothesis that the tendency of mice to avoid illumination could be a useful conservation tool, and advance knowledge of risk assessment and foraging under perceived danger.  
  Address (down) University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26760039 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1339  
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Author Kayaba, M.; Iwayama, K.; Ogata, H.; Seya, Y.; Tokuyama, K.; Satoh, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Drowsiness and low energy metabolism in the following morning induced by nocturnal blue light exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages e166-e167  
  Keywords blue light; light exposure; light at night; circadian disruption; drowsiness; melatonin; metabolism; sleep  
  Abstract Introduction

Evening light exposure debilitates the circadian rhythm and elicits sleep disturbance. Blue light peak wavelengths, around 460 nm, suppress melatonin secretion via the non-image-forming system. The effects of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep have been reported to be specific but rather small (Münch, 2008). This study was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep and energy metabolism until noon the next day.

Materials and methods

Nine healthy male volunteers aged between 21 and 25 participated in this study which had a balanced cross-over design with intrasubject comparisons. After 2 h dark adaptation, the subjects were exposed to blue light or no light for 2 h. The peak wavelength of the blue LED was 465 nm, and the horizontal irradiance of the blue light at the height of eye was at 7.02fÊW/cm2. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and energy metabolism was measured with a whole body indirect calorimeter.

Results

There were no significant differences in sleep architecture and energy metabolism during the night. However, dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly higher (26.0 < 29.4 vs 6.3 < 8.1 min, P < 0.05), and energy expenditure, O2 consumption, CO2 production and the thermic effect of food (increase in energy expenditure after breakfast) were significantly lower the following morning in the blue light exposure subjects.

Conclusion

Contrary to our expectation, sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep were not affected by evening exposure to blue light. It might be due to our milder intervention by which subjects in a sitting position did not gaze at the light source set on the ceiling, while the subjects in previous studies directly received brighter light via custom built goggles (Cajochen, 2005; Münch, 2008) or gazed at a light source under the influence of mydriatic agents to dilate pupils (Brainard, 2001). New findings of the present study were that dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly increased, and energy metabolism was significantly lower the following morning in blue light exposed subjects. This suggests that modulation of the circadian rhythm is affected by nocturnal blue light exposure and the effect continues in the following daytime even if the intervention was mild.
 
  Address (down) University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 349  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Farahat, A.; Florea, A.; Martinez Lastra, J.L.; Branas, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Energy Efficiency Considerations for LED-based Lighting of Multipurpose Outdoor Environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensingournal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Emerging and Sel. Topics in Power Elec.  
  Volume PP Issue 99 Pages 1  
  Keywords Lighting; LED lighting; LED; optimization; lighting technology; lighting design; energy; energy efficiency  
  Abstract Nowadays street lighting accounts for 53% of outdoor lighting use and the market is continuously increasing. In the context of rising energy prices and growing environmental awareness, energy efficiency is becoming one of the most important criteria for street lighting systems design. LED-based lights have become the primary option for replacing conventional light bulbs, being digitally controllable, small, highly efficient, and cheap to manufacture. Advanced control strategies adapted to ambient conditions are needed to combine low energy consumption and high quality light ambience according to changing specifications. This paper describes an outdoor lighting solution aimed at energy efficient performance in the context of multipurpose outdoor environments, where control is crucial in achieving efficiency improvements. The work addresses efficiency at the component level, by optimizing the performance of LED drivers, and at system level, defining the control strategy and associated hardware infrastructure. The approach designed was tested in a real environment. The performance of the lighting installation was assessed using the web-based monitoring application, providing real-time consumption information and aggregated historical data.  
  Address (down) University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.(Email: ahmed.amr.b@gmail.com)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IEEE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2168-6777 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1205  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Skeldon, A.C.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Dijk, D.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of self-selected light-dark cycles and social constraints on human sleep and circadian timing: a modeling approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 45158  
  Keywords human health, lighting  
  Abstract Why do we go to sleep late and struggle to wake up on time? Historically, light-dark cycles were dictated by the solar day, but now humans can extend light exposure by switching on artificial lights. We use a mathematical model incorporating effects of light, circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis to provide a quantitative theoretical framework to understand effects of modern patterns of light consumption on the human circadian system. The model shows that without artificial light humans wakeup at dawn. Artificial light delays circadian rhythmicity and preferred sleep timing and compromises synchronisation to the solar day when wake-times are not enforced. When wake-times are enforced by social constraints, such as work or school, artificial light induces a mismatch between sleep timing and circadian rhythmicity ('social jet-lag'). The model implies that developmental changes in sleep homeostasis and circadian amplitude make adolescents particularly sensitive to effects of light consumption. The model predicts that ameliorating social jet-lag is more effectively achieved by reducing evening light consumption than by delaying social constraints, particularly in individuals with slow circadian clocks or when imposed wake-times occur after sunrise. These theory-informed predictions may aid design of interventions to prevent and treat circadian rhythm-sleep disorders and social jet-lag.  
  Address (down) University of Surrey, Surrey Sleep Research Centre, Guildford, GU2 7XP, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28345624 Approved no  
  Call Number SU @ spitschan @ Serial 1638  
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