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Author Fotios, S.; Yang, B.; Uttley, J.
Title Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technologying Res & Tech
Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 548-564
Keywords traffic safety; pedestrians; roadway lighting; visibility; light at night
Abstract After dark, road lighting should enhance the visual component of pedestrians’ interpersonal judgements such as evaluating the intent of others. Investigation of lighting effects requires better understanding of the nature of this task as expressed by the typical distance at which the judgement is made (and hence visual size) and the duration of observation, which in past studies have been arbitrary. Better understanding will help with interpretation of the significance of lighting characteristics such as illuminance and light spectrum. Conclusions of comfort distance in past studies are not consistent and hence this article presents new data determined using eye-tracking. We propose that further work on interpersonal judgements should examine the effects of lighting at a distance of 15 m with an observation duration of 500 ms.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 309
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Author De Almeida, A.; Santos, B.; Paolo, B.; Quicheron, M.
Title Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Volume 34 Issue Pages 30-48
Keywords Lighting; solid-state lighting; LED; lighting technology; review; Europe
Abstract According to IEA estimates, about 19% of the electricity used in the world is for lighting loads with a slightly smaller fraction used in the European Union (14%). Lighting was the first service offered by electric utilities and still continues to be one of the largest electrical end-uses. Most current lighting technologies can be vastly improved, and therefore lighting loads present a huge potential for electricity savings.

Solid State Lighting (SSL) is amongst the most energy-efficient and environmentally friendly lighting technology. SSL has already reached a high efficiency level (over 276 lm/W) at ever-decreasing costs. Additionally the lifetime of LED lamps is several times longer than discharge lamps. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art SSL technology trends.

SSL technology is evolving fast, which can bring many advantages to the lighting marketplace. However, there are still some market barriers that are hindering the high cost-effective potential of energy-efficient lighting from being achieved. This paper presents several strategies and recommendations in order to overcome existing barriers and promote a faster penetration of SSL. The estimated savings potential through the application of SSL lighting systems in the European Union (EU) is around 209 TWh, which translates into 77 million tonnes of CO2. The economic benefits translate into the equivalent annual electrical output of about 26 large power plants (1000 MW electric). Similar impacts, in terms of percentage savings, can be expected in other parts of the World.
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ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 319
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Lolkema, D.E.
Title A community standard for recording skyglow data Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Astronomy & Geophysics Abbreviated Journal Astron Geophys
Volume 53 Issue 6 Pages 6.17-6.18
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Abstract Christopher Kyba and Dorien Lolkema describe a standard format for recording skyglow data developed by the light at night research community, with the goal of improving data exchange between researchers
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 321
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Author Fulop, P.; Hanuliak, P.; Mankova, L.
Title Case Study of Light Pollution in Urbanized Area of Slovakia Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Advanced Materials Research Abbreviated Journal Amr
Volume 899 Issue Pages 277-282
Keywords Slovakia; light pollution; light at night; public policy
Abstract This paper deals with the problem of light pollution and its potential impact on human body. Loss of darkness during the night has a negative effect on the environment, animals, plants and humans. Concerning humans, the light during the night can lead to desynchronization of circadian rhythms with subsequent lower production of sleeping hormone called melatonin. In addition to the negative impact on organisms, there is also economical effect of wastage of lighting during the night. Pollution caused by the occurrence of light during the night is relatively new term, which has been perceived very roughly so far. That is probably the reason, why Slovak legislation deals with this problem very roughly. Some limitation levels of illuminance of billboards were stated, but the legislation doesn ́t deal with the effect of the occurrence of higly influential light during the night on people at their homes.
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ISSN 1662-8985 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 325
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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I.
Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express
Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056
Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic
Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.
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ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 351
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