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Author Davis, S.; Mirick, D.K.; Stevens, R.G.
Title Night Shift Work, Light at Night, and Risk of Breast Cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute Abbreviated Journal JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume 93 Issue 20 Pages 1557-1562
Keywords light at night; oncogenesis; melatonin; shiftwork; breast cancer; *Cancer
Abstract Exposure to light at night may increase the risk of breast cancer by suppressing the normal nocturnal production of melatonin by the pineal gland, which, in turn, could increase the release of estrogen by the ovaries. This study investigated whether such exposure is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women. Methods: Case patients (n = 813), aged 20–74 years, were diagnosed from November 1992 through March 1995; control subjects (n = 793) were identified by random-digit dialing and were frequency matched according to 5-year age groups. An in-person interview was used to gather information on sleep habits and bedroom lighting environment in the 10 years before diagnosis and lifetime occupational history. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by use of conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for other potential risk factors. Results: Breast cancer risk was increased among subjects who frequently did not sleep during the period of the night when melatonin levels are typically at their highest (OR = 1.14 for each night per week; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.28). Risk did not increase with interrupted sleep accompanied by turning on a light. There was an indication of increased risk among subjects with the brightest bedrooms. Graveyard shiftwork was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.5), with a trend of increased risk with increasing years and with more hours per week of graveyard shiftwork (P = .02, Wald chi-squared test). Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that indicators of exposure to light at night may be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer.
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ISSN 0027-8874 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 164
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Author McFadden, E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J.
Title The Relationship Between Obesity and Exposure to Light at Night: Cross-Sectional Analyses of Over 100,000 Women in the Breakthrough Generations Study Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol
Volume 180 Issue 3 Pages 245-250
Keywords body mass index; circadian rhythm; light at night; obesity; sleep; sleeping habits
Abstract There has been a worldwide epidemic of obesity in recent decades. In animal studies, there is convincing evidence that light exposure causes weight gain, even when calorie intake and physical activity are held constant. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms by exposure to light at night (LAN) might be one mechanism contributing to the rise in obesity, but it has not been well-investigated in humans. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the association between exposure to LAN and obesity in questionnaire data from over 100,000 women in the Breakthrough Generations Study, a cohort study of women aged 16 years or older who were living in the United Kingdom and recruited during 2003-2012. The odds of obesity, measured using body mass index, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio, and waist circumference, increased with increasing levels of LAN exposure (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for potential confounders such as sleep duration, alcohol intake, physical activity, and current smoking. We found a significant association between LAN exposure and obesity which was not explained by potential confounders we could measure. While the possibility of residual confounding cannot be excluded, the pattern is intriguing, accords with the results of animal experiments, and warrants further investigation.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-9262 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24875371 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 166
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Author Owsley, C.
Title Impact of Cataract Surgery on Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement by Older Adults Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 288 Issue 7 Pages 841
Keywords cataracts
Abstract We report the results of the Impact of Cataracts on Mobility (ICOM) project that was designed to address the question, for those older drivers who have cataract, what is the impact of cataract surgery on crash rate in the 4 years following surgery compared with those who have cataract who do not elect surgery? Strengths of this study design are the use of a comparison group of patients with cataract who do not undergo surgery followed prospectively over the same time period and the statistical adjustment for potential differences in the surgery and no surgery groups at baseline that could serve as confounders for the hypothesized effect. Using a randomized design would have been unethical since cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation is an accepted and proven standard of care.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0098-7484 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 170
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Chisholm, R.
Title Mapping artificial lightscapes for ecological studies Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Methods in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Methods Ecol Evol
Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 534-540
Keywords light pollution; urban ecology; landscape ecology; diurnal; nocturnal; night; light
Abstract Artificial illumination of the night is increasing globally. There is growing evidence of a range of ecological impacts of artificial light and awareness of light pollution as a significant environmental issue. In urban and suburban areas, complex spatial patterns of light sources, structures and vegetation create a highly heterogeneous night-time light environment for plants and animals.

We developed a method for modelling the night-time light environment at a high spatial resolution in a small urban area for ecological studies. We used the position and height of street lights, and digital terrain and surface models, to predict the direct light intensity at different wavelengths at different heights above the ground surface.

Validation against field measurements of night-time light showed that modelled light intensities in the visible and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum were accurate.

We show how this model can be used to map biologically relevant lightscapes across an urban landscape. We also illustrate the utility of the model using night-time light maps as resistance surfaces in the software package circuitscape to predict potential movement of model nocturnal species between habitat patches and to identify key corridors and barriers to movement and dispersal.

Understanding the ecological effects of artificial light requires knowledge of the light environment experienced by organisms throughout the diurnal and annual cycles, during periods of activity and rest and during different life stages. Our approach to high-resolution mapping of artificial lightscapes can be adapted to the sensitivity to light of different species and to other urban, suburban, rural and industrial landscapes.
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ISSN 2041210X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 171
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Author Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Night sky brightness at sites from DMSP-OLS satellite measurements Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 353 Issue 4 Pages 1107-1116
Keywords scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; site testing; GTOPO30; DMSP
Abstract We apply the sky brightness modelling technique introduced and developed by Roy Garstang to high-resolution satellite measurements of upward artificial light flux carried out with the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System and to GTOPO30 (a global digital elevation model by the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Centre) digital elevation data in order to predict the brightness distribution of the night sky at a given site in the primary astronomical photometric bands for a range of atmospheric aerosol contents. This method, based on global data and accounting for elevation, Earth curvature and mountain screening, allows the evaluation of sky glow conditions over the entire sky for any site in the world, to evaluate its evolution, to disentangle the contribution of individual sources in the surrounding territory and to identify the main contributing sources. Sky brightness, naked eye stellar visibility and telescope limiting magnitude are produced as three-dimensional arrays, the axes of which are the position on the sky and the atmospheric clarity. We compare our results with available measurements.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 172
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