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Author Sutton, P.C.
Title A scale-adjusted measure of “Urban sprawl” using nighttime satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 86 Issue 3 Pages 353-369
Keywords Urban sprawl; Sprawl Line; Nighttime satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; llight at night
Abstract “Urban Sprawl” is a growing concern of citizens, environmental organizations, and governments. Negative impacts often attributed to urban sprawl are traffic congestion, loss of open space, and increased pollutant runoff into natural waterways. Definitions of “Urban Sprawl” range from local patterns of land use and development to aggregate measures of per capita land consumption for given contiguous urban areas (UA). This research creates a measure of per capita land use consumption as an aggregate index for the spatially contiguous urban areas of the conterminous United States with population of 50,000 or greater. Nighttime satellite imagery obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is used as a proxy measure of urban extent. The corresponding population of these urban areas is derived from a grid of the block group level data from the 1990 U.S. Census. These numbers are used to develop a regression equation between Ln(Urban Area) and Ln(Urban Population). The ‘scale-adjustment’ mentioned in the title characterizes the “Urban Sprawl” of each of the urban areas by how far above or below they are on the “Sprawl Line” determined by this regression. This “Sprawl Line” allows for a more fair comparison of “Urban Sprawl” between larger and smaller metropolitan areas because a simple measure of per capita land consumption or population density does not account for the natural increase in aggregate population density that occurs as cities grow in population. Cities that have more “Urban Sprawl” by this measure tended to be inland and Midwestern cities such as Minneapolis–St. Paul, Atlanta, Dallas–Ft. Worth, St. Louis, and Kansas City. Surprisingly, west coast cities including Los Angeles had some of the lowest levels of “Urban Sprawl” by this measure. There were many low light levels seen in the nighttime imagery around these major urban areas that were not included in either of the two definitions of urban extent used in this study. These areas may represent a growing commuter-shed of urban workers who do not live in the urban core but nonetheless contribute to many of the impacts typically attributed to “Urban Sprawl”. “Urban Sprawl” is difficult to define precisely partly because public perception of sprawl is likely derived from local land use planning decisions, spatio-demographic change in growing urban areas, and changing values and social mores resulting from differential rates of international migration to the urban areas of the United States. Nonetheless, the aggregate measures derived here are somewhat different than similar previously used measures in that they are ‘scale-adjusted’; also, the spatial patterns of “Urban Sprawl” shown here shed some insight and raise interesting questions about how the dynamics of “Urban Sprawl” are changing.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 233
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Author Sutton, P.; Roberts, D.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.
Title Census from Heaven: An estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 22 Issue 16 Pages 3061-3076
Keywords light at night; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite
Abstract Night-time satellite imagery provided by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. A global night-time image product was registered to a dataset of 2000 known city locations with known populations. A relationship between areal extent and city population discovered by Tobler and Nordbeck is identified on a nation by nation basis to estimate the population of the 22 920 urban clusters that exist in the night-time satellite image. The relationship between city population and city areal extent was derived from 1597 city point locations with known population that landed in a 'lit' area of the image. Due to conurbation, these 1597 cities resulted in only 1383 points of analysis for performing regression. When several cities fell into one 'lit' area their populations were summed. The results of this analysis allow for an estimate of the urban population of every nation of the world. By using the known percent of population in urban areas for every nation a total national population was also estimated. The sum of these estimates is a total estimate of the global human population, which in this case was 6.3 billion. This is fairly close to the generally accepted contemporaneous (1997) estimate of the global population which stood at approximately 5.9 billion.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 234
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Author Daukantas, P.
Title Light Pollution: The Problem and the Possible Solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Optics and Photonics News Abbreviated Journal Optics & Photonics News
Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 30
Keywords light pollution; public policy
Abstract Over the past quarter-century, scientists have become increasingly aware of the problems that light pollution causes for astronomers, migrating birds and human health and safety. Finding effective means to reduce the effects will take the combined efforts of research scientists, lighting engineers, architects, city planners, businesspeople and homeowners.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1047-6938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 245
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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R.; Pick, K.; Selders, J.
Title From The Ground Up I: Light Pollution Sources in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac
Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 185-203
Keywords light pollution; Flagstaff; Arizona; measurements; lighting policy; public policy
Abstract We develop an estimate of the complete outdoor lighting of Flagstaff Arizona, as well as lighting-use densities (lumens per acre) for a number of different land uses. We find a total outdoor light output of 173 million lumens (Mlm) including sports lighting, and 139 Mlm without sports lighting, with an uncertainty of about 7%. The average fraction escaping directly upward from light fixtures is estimated to be 8.3%. After correcting approximately for near-ground blocking described in the accompanying paper by Luginbuhl et al., total uplight is estimated at 17.9 Mlm or 12.2 Mlm with and without sports lighting, respectively. Of these 17.9 Mlm, 33% arise from sports lighting, when it is on; when sports lighting is off, commercial and industrial lighting account for 62% with the remainder dominated by residential (14%) and roadway lighting (12%). We show that the 1989 Flagstaff lighting code that limited total outdoor lighting on new construction has reduced the growth rate of lighting, resulting in a 17% growth in light escaping into the sky from 1989 to 2003, compared to a 43% increase expected if the 1989 code had not been enacted. If all legally nonconforming lighting installed before 1989 were to be brought into compliance with the code, we would expect sky glow in Flagstaff to actually decrease by 36% compared to that in 2003; if all lighting, including residential, could be converted to fully shielded fixtures, sky glow would decrease to about half the current value. The implications for the most effective ways to address sky glow through lighting codes are discussed.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 246
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Rinne, J.
Title Voices for the darkness: online survey on public perceptions on light pollution as an environmental problem Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences
Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 127-139
Keywords environmental management; light pollution; public perceptions; survey; public policy
Abstract Light pollution is increasingly affecting ecosystems and human health. We present results from an online survey aimed to chart what aspects of lighting are considered harmful and how light pollution is perceived by the public. We focus on affluent societies by using Finland as an example of a northern industrialised country. The survey generated 2053 responses, particularly from well-educated urban persons living in residential areas and interested in astronomy or environmental issues. The results show that the lighting of residential areas and lighting serving traffic are considered the most common sources of light pollution while commercial lighting is perceived as the most annoying form of light use. Respondents commonly considered light pollution as a disturbance for outdoor recreation and relaxation. The results suggest that the ecological and health effects of light pollution emphasised by the research are poorly known by the people emphasising the aesthetic aspects. The results indicate relatively wide but passive acceptance for policy measures aimed at reducing light pollution.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1943-815X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 248
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