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Author Boyce, P.; Fotios, S.; Richards, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting and energy saving Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 245-260  
  Keywords public policy; roadway lighting; energy consumption  
  Abstract This paper examines how the lighting of roads in the UK might be changed so as to preserve the benefits while minimising energy consumption. It is divided into four sections, these being changes in technology, changes in patterns of use, changes in standards and contracts and changes in the basis of design. Useful changes in technology and patterns of use are available now, but their use will raise the question as to whether or not environmental considerations can override conventional financial constraints. Changes in standards and the basis of design are much more long term. Comparisons of road lighting standards used in different countries show significant differences that deserve examination. As for the basis of design, consideration of the importance of light to fatal and personal injury accidents of different types suggests that road lighting should be concentrated where pedestrians are common, not where speeds are highest. Ultimately, considering carefully what problem road lighting is intended to solve and whether or not road lighting is the best answer is the key to minimising the energy consumption of road lighting without diminishing road safety.  
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  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 249  
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Author Boomsma, C.; Steg, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Feeling Safe in the Dark: Examining the Effect of Entrapment, Lighting Levels, and Gender on Feelings of Safety and Lighting Policy Acceptability Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Environment and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Environment and Behavior  
  Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 193-212  
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  Abstract This research examined to what extent physical factors, notably lighting and entrapment (blocked escape), and individual factors, notably gender, affect feelings of safety and the acceptability of reduced lighting levels. The authors reasoned that acceptability of reduced street lighting depends on perceived safety, which in turn depends on entrapment, lighting, and gender. Virtual representations of a residential street were used, systematically manipulating entrapment and lighting levels. As expected, people felt less safe in lower lighting and higher entrapment settings, and these settings were evaluated as less acceptable. Although women perceived a situation as less safe compared with men, the authors found no gender differences in acceptability, which extends previous research. Importantly, as hypothesized, perceived safety mediated the effect of lighting on acceptability levels, suggesting that people can accept lower lighting levels when social safety is not threatened.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 252  
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Author Marchant, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating area-wide crime-reduction measures Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance  
  Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 62-65  
  Keywords lighting; crime; safety  
  Abstract When we look around an imperfect world, we feel an understandable impulse to improve matters. We may therefore decide to intervene by prescribing medical treatment or by introducing crime reduction measures. But how do we know that what we do is likely to work? In medicine the standard answer is to do a trial; not surprisingly the same is true in crime reduction. But, says Paul Marchant, the lessons learned from medical trials have not been implemented in the latter field.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1740-9705 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 253  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Demonstration That the Claim That Brighter Lighting Reduces Crime Is Unfounded Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication British Journal of Criminology Abbreviated Journal British Journal of Criminology  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 441-447  
  Keywords lighting; crime; street lighting  
  Abstract The major systematic review on street lighting and crime, Home Office Research Study 251, suggests that claims for the effectiveness of lighting against crime are justified. The review at first sight appears to be an appropriate statistical synthesis of all studies on street lighting and crime across the world. However on close examination, the statistical claims and methods are unfounded. In three cases examined there is a clear conflict between the evidence and the reviewers' interpretation of this. One of the principal problems is easily seen. The time-series of the original data from the Bristol study shows no good evidence for the crime reduction benefit of lighting. However the review gives the result for the same data as being extremely statistically significant. It is suggested that such a difference between the newly lit and the control areas occurring purely by chance is less than one in a billion, but this is manifestly wrong. Two other component studies, Birmingham and Dudley, are examined.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-0955 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 254  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
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