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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K.E.; Tuttle, B.T.; Ghosh, T.; Pack, D.W.; Erwin, E.H.; Zhizhin, M.
Title A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies
Volume 2 Issue 3 Pages 595-622
Keywords
Abstract We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM). Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of $68 billion. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satell
Address gas flaring; carbon emissions; nighttime lights; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; light at night; satellite
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ISSN 1996-1073 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 231
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Author Sutton, P.C.
Title A scale-adjusted measure of “Urban sprawl” using nighttime satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 86 Issue 3 Pages 353-369
Keywords Urban sprawl; Sprawl Line; Nighttime satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; llight at night
Abstract “Urban Sprawl” is a growing concern of citizens, environmental organizations, and governments. Negative impacts often attributed to urban sprawl are traffic congestion, loss of open space, and increased pollutant runoff into natural waterways. Definitions of “Urban Sprawl” range from local patterns of land use and development to aggregate measures of per capita land consumption for given contiguous urban areas (UA). This research creates a measure of per capita land use consumption as an aggregate index for the spatially contiguous urban areas of the conterminous United States with population of 50,000 or greater. Nighttime satellite imagery obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is used as a proxy measure of urban extent. The corresponding population of these urban areas is derived from a grid of the block group level data from the 1990 U.S. Census. These numbers are used to develop a regression equation between Ln(Urban Area) and Ln(Urban Population). The ‘scale-adjustment’ mentioned in the title characterizes the “Urban Sprawl” of each of the urban areas by how far above or below they are on the “Sprawl Line” determined by this regression. This “Sprawl Line” allows for a more fair comparison of “Urban Sprawl” between larger and smaller metropolitan areas because a simple measure of per capita land consumption or population density does not account for the natural increase in aggregate population density that occurs as cities grow in population. Cities that have more “Urban Sprawl” by this measure tended to be inland and Midwestern cities such as Minneapolis–St. Paul, Atlanta, Dallas–Ft. Worth, St. Louis, and Kansas City. Surprisingly, west coast cities including Los Angeles had some of the lowest levels of “Urban Sprawl” by this measure. There were many low light levels seen in the nighttime imagery around these major urban areas that were not included in either of the two definitions of urban extent used in this study. These areas may represent a growing commuter-shed of urban workers who do not live in the urban core but nonetheless contribute to many of the impacts typically attributed to “Urban Sprawl”. “Urban Sprawl” is difficult to define precisely partly because public perception of sprawl is likely derived from local land use planning decisions, spatio-demographic change in growing urban areas, and changing values and social mores resulting from differential rates of international migration to the urban areas of the United States. Nonetheless, the aggregate measures derived here are somewhat different than similar previously used measures in that they are ‘scale-adjusted’; also, the spatial patterns of “Urban Sprawl” shown here shed some insight and raise interesting questions about how the dynamics of “Urban Sprawl” are changing.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 233
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Author Sutton, P.; Roberts, D.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.
Title Census from Heaven: An estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 22 Issue 16 Pages 3061-3076
Keywords light at night; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite
Abstract Night-time satellite imagery provided by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. A global night-time image product was registered to a dataset of 2000 known city locations with known populations. A relationship between areal extent and city population discovered by Tobler and Nordbeck is identified on a nation by nation basis to estimate the population of the 22 920 urban clusters that exist in the night-time satellite image. The relationship between city population and city areal extent was derived from 1597 city point locations with known population that landed in a 'lit' area of the image. Due to conurbation, these 1597 cities resulted in only 1383 points of analysis for performing regression. When several cities fell into one 'lit' area their populations were summed. The results of this analysis allow for an estimate of the urban population of every nation of the world. By using the known percent of population in urban areas for every nation a total national population was also estimated. The sum of these estimates is a total estimate of the global human population, which in this case was 6.3 billion. This is fairly close to the generally accepted contemporaneous (1997) estimate of the global population which stood at approximately 5.9 billion.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 234
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Author Warrant, E.J.; Johnsen, S.
Title Vision and the light environment Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 22 Pages R990-4
Keywords photobiology; animals; physiology of vision; photodetection
Abstract Almost all animals, no matter how humble, possess eyes. Only those that live in total darkness, such as in a pitch-dark cave, may lack eyes entirely. Even at tremendous depths in the ocean — where the only lights that are ever seen are rare and fitful sparks of bioluminescence — most animals have eyes, and often surprisingly well-developed eyes. And despite their diversity (there are currently ten generally recognised optical types) all eyes have evolved in response to the remarkably varied light environments that are present in the habitats where animals live. Variations in the intensity of light, as well as in its direction, colour and dominant planes of polarisation, have all had dramatic effects on visual evolution. In the terrestrial habitats where we ourselves have most recently evolved, the light environment can vary quite markedly from day to night and from one location to another. In aquatic habitats, this variation can be orders of magnitude greater. Even though the ecologies and life histories of animals have played a major role in visual evolution, it is arguably the physical limitations imposed on photodetection by a given habitat and its light environment that have defined the basic selective pressures that have driven the evolution of eyes.
Address Department of Biology, University of Lund, Solvegatan 35, S-22362 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: Eric.Warrant@biol.lu.se
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24262832 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 235
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Author Meng, Y.; He, Z.; Yin, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, T.
Title Quantitative calculation of human melatonin suppression induced by inappropriate light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing Abbreviated Journal Med Biol Eng Comput
Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 1083-1088
Keywords Algorithms; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/*radiation effects; Humans; *Lighting; Melatonin/*secretion; *Models, Biological; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/physiology/radiation effects; Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology/radiation effects; Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells/physiology/radiation effects
Abstract Melatonin (C(1)(3)H(1)(6)N(2)O(2)) has a wide range of functions in the body. When is inappropriately exposed to light at night, human circadian rhythm will be interfered and then melatonin secretion will become abnormal. For nearly three decades great progresses have been achieved in analytic action spectra and melatonin suppression by various light conditions. However, so far few articles focused on the quantitative calculation of melatonin suppression induced by light. In this article, an algorithm is established, in which all the contributions of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are considered. Calculation results accords with the experimental data in references very well, which indicate the validity of this algorithm. This algorithm can also interpret the rule of melatonin suppression varying with light correlated color temperature very well.
Address Photonics Research Center, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0140-0118 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21717231 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 236
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