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Author (up) Andre, J.; Owens, D.A. url  openurl
  Title The Twilight Envelope: A User-Centered Approach to Describing Roadway Illumination at Night Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 620-630  
  Keywords Society  
  Abstract Visual recognition functions, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity, deteriorate rapidly over the declining luminances found during civil twilight. Thus civil twilight, a critical part of the transition between daylight and darkness, represents lighting conditions that may be useful to describe artificial illumination. Automotive headlamps project a three-dimensional beam that ranges from illumination levels comparable to daylight at the vehicle to the dark limit of civil twilight (3.3 1x) at some distance ahead. This twilight envelope is characterized as a distance beyond which foveal visual functions are severely impaired, and thus it provides a general, functional description of the useful extent of the headlamp beam. This user-centered approach to describing illumination is useful for characterizing visibility when driving at night or in other artificially lit environments. This paper discusses the twilight envelope approach and its application to intervehicle variations in headlamp systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include user-centered description of artificial illumination and driver/pedestrian safety education.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 988  
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Author (up) Andreić , Ž.; Andreić , D.; Pavlić , K. url  openurl
  Title Near infrared light pollution measurements in Croatian sites. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Geofizika Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 143 - 156  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract We investigate the light pollution (lP) in the near-infrared (NIR) part of the electromagnetic spectrum (700–1000 nm) for sites at low altitude, as typical for small observatories in this region. Our measurements show that considerable light pollution exists in the NIR. The increase of night sky brightness towards the horizon is often slightly slower in the NIR than in the visible. In cases when lP is mostly produced by high-pressure sodium lamps, the NIR part of light pollution is dominated by two close sodium spectral lines (818.3 and 819.5 nm) that can easily be filtered out with a dedicated filter. This can, however, change as sodium lamps are gradually replaced by metal-halide lamps whose spectra are complex, showing many lines over the whole visible/infrared range. If in the future a change to lED light sources happens, lP in the NIR could be reduced drastically. last, but not least, the low altitude of observing sites, together with climate characteristics of the region, result in a lot more humidity and aerosols in the atmosphere, compared to a typical mountaintop observatory site. This, combined with proximity of the polluting sources to the observing sites, results in enhancing the lP, compared to the clear, dry atmospheric conditions of a mountaintop observatory.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 542  
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Author (up) Anisimov, V. N. url  openurl
  Title Light desynchronosis and health Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Light & Engineering Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 14-25  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract The review summarizes the modern knowledge of the impact of day-night, light-darkness rhythm disorders on the aging process and on the risk of development of the age-related conditions. Significant evidence has been obtained of that the constant artificial illumination and the daylight of the North has a stimulating effect on the occurrence and development of tumours in laboratory animals. It has been shown that long-term shift work, trans-meridian flights (jet-lag) and insomnia increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and malignancies in humans. Particular attention is given to the studies where the relationship between light intensity, light wavelength and its ability to suppress the synthesis of melatonin produced at night in the pineal gland, are investigated. It has been established that melatonin synthesis is most effectively suppressed with blue light sources of a wavelength from 446 to 477 nm. The use of exogenous melatonin prevents premature aging of the reproductive system and the body as a whole prevents the development of immune-suppression, metabolic syndrome and tumours caused by light pollution. An urgent task is to develop recommendations for optimizing the illumination of workplaces and residential premises, of cities and towns as a prevention measure for premature aging and age-related pathology, which, ultimately, will contribute to the long-term maintaining of performance and improving the quality of life.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2642  
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Author (up) Anisimov, V. N. url  openurl
  Title Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Neuroendocrinology Letters Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue 1-2 Pages 35-52  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 703  
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Author (up) Anisimov, V.N.; Vinogradova, I.A.; Panchenko, A.V.; Popovich, I.G.; Zabezhinskii, M.A. url  openurl
  Title Light-at-Night-Induced Circadian Disruption, Cancer and Aging Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Current Aging Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 170-177  
  Keywords Animals; Light-at-night; aging; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; circadian; circadian rhythm; diabetes; disruption; melatonin; shift-work  
  Abstract Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that “shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylurea and transplacental carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosoethylurea in rats. Treatment with melatonin prevented premature aging and tumorigenesis in rodents. The data found in the literature and our observations suggest that the use of melatonin would be effective for cancer prevention in humans at risk as a result of light pollution.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 377  
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