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Author (up) Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 4 Issue Pages 3789
Keywords remote sensing; light pollution; light at night; DMSP-OLS; satellite; light pollution reduction
Abstract Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK TR10 9EZ
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24445659; PMCID:PMC3896907 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 328
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Author (up) Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Chisholm, R.
Title Mapping artificial lightscapes for ecological studies Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Methods in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Methods Ecol Evol
Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 534-540
Keywords light pollution; urban ecology; landscape ecology; diurnal; nocturnal; night; light
Abstract Artificial illumination of the night is increasing globally. There is growing evidence of a range of ecological impacts of artificial light and awareness of light pollution as a significant environmental issue. In urban and suburban areas, complex spatial patterns of light sources, structures and vegetation create a highly heterogeneous night-time light environment for plants and animals.

We developed a method for modelling the night-time light environment at a high spatial resolution in a small urban area for ecological studies. We used the position and height of street lights, and digital terrain and surface models, to predict the direct light intensity at different wavelengths at different heights above the ground surface.

Validation against field measurements of night-time light showed that modelled light intensities in the visible and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum were accurate.

We show how this model can be used to map biologically relevant lightscapes across an urban landscape. We also illustrate the utility of the model using night-time light maps as resistance surfaces in the software package circuitscape to predict potential movement of model nocturnal species between habitat patches and to identify key corridors and barriers to movement and dispersal.

Understanding the ecological effects of artificial light requires knowledge of the light environment experienced by organisms throughout the diurnal and annual cycles, during periods of activity and rest and during different life stages. Our approach to high-resolution mapping of artificial lightscapes can be adapted to the sensitivity to light of different species and to other urban, suburban, rural and industrial landscapes.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2041210X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 171
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Author (up) Bennie, J.; Duffy, J.; Davies, T.; Correa-Cano, M.; Gaston, K.
Title Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 2715-2730
Keywords Remote Sensing; Ecology
Abstract
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1129
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Author (up) Bennie, J.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 111 Issue 38 Pages 13727-13732
Keywords cathemeral; night
Abstract Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25225371 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 373
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Author (up) Benot, S.; R. Goberna; R. J. Reiter; S. Garcia-Mauriño; C. Osuna; J. M. Guerrero
Title Physiological levels of melatonin contribute to the antioxidant capacity of human serum Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue Pages 59-64
Keywords Human Health
Abstract This work evaluates whether physiological concentrations of the pineal secretory product melatonin contribute to the total antioxidant status (TAS) of human serum. Day and nighttime serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers ranging from 2 to 89 years of age and used to measure melatonin and TAS. Results showed that both melatonin and TAS in human serum exhibited 24 hr variations with nocturnal peak values at 01:00 hr. Moreover, exposure of volunteers to light at night resulted in clear decreases of both TAS and melatonin. Furthermore, when melatonin was removed from sera collected at night, the TAS value of the sample was reduced to basal daytime values. In aging studies, it was found that nocturnal serum values of TAS and melatonin exhibited maximal values during the first four decades; thereafter, these values decreased as age advanced. In 60-year-old individuals, day/night differences in serum melatonin and TAS levels were clearly diminished, by more than 80%, with these differences being completely abolished in older individuals. Our results suggest that melatonin contributes to the total antioxidative capability of human serum. This antioxidant contribution of melatonin is reduced as age advances correlating with the age-related reduction of melatonin.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 719
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