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Author (up) Ahmed, AK; Sadik, MA
Title Study of sky brightness profiles of Baghdad and Karbala cities in Iraq Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Science and Nature Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 18-24
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract This study was used two detectors only i.e., the human eye and photometer of Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LU) during the time of sunrise and sunset. The human eye used to determine the moon's phase. The measurements of sky brightness, by using SQM-LU, performed via two locations that covered Baghdad and Karbala in Iraq from December 2016 through March 2017 intermittently. The research focused only on light perceived by detectors and not how it happens. The aim of research is to find a mathematical formula (i.e . brightness contrast) between the sky brightness against the solar altitude by taking moon illumination as the standard reference. Analytical software based on the Python's PyEphem astrometry library was developed to calculate the solar altitude at the two locations. Finally, the formula of sky brightness obtained from this work is an important key that contributed to finding the simulated sky brightness, when the sun's altitude is known.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1851
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Author (up) Ahn, H.; Lee, S.; Jo, E.
Title Assessment on Lighting Management Zones for Light pollution in Gwangju Metropolitan City Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication 한국태양에너지학회 학술대회논문집 Abbreviated Journal
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Keywords Lighting; Planning
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1960
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Author (up) Ahn, J.; Ahn, S.-E.; Yang, K.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Oh, J.
Title Effects of a high level of illumination before sleep at night on chorioretinal thickness and ocular biometry Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res
Volume 164 Issue Pages 157-167
Keywords Vision
Abstract The choroid is affected by many factors. One of the factors, change in illumination has been suggested to influence choroidal thickness. However, the effects of bright light before sleep at night on the human eye are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high level of illumination in the evening on ocular measurements. Twenty-seven men with myopia spent seven consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first two nights, subjects were exposed to light at 150 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Then, for five consecutive nights, they were exposed to ambient light at 1000 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Ocular parameters and their diurnal variations were compared between the two periods and the effects of a high level of illumination were analyzed. After subjects were exposed to 1000 lux of illumination, axial length increased with borderline significance (p = 0.064). Macular volume and retinal thickness did not change. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness after exposure to 1000 lux of illumination (245.37 +/- 52.84 mum) was significantly lower than that after 150 lux of illumination (268.00 +/- 57.10 mum), (p < 0.001). Significant diurnal variations were found in mean keratometry (p = 0.039), intraocular pressure (IOP, p = 0.003), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP, p < 0.0001), macular volume (p = 0.019), and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.0001). A high level of illumination had significant effects on only IOP and OPP (p = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively). Bright light exposure before sleep at an intensity as high as 1000 lux reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy young men. In conclusion, diurnal variation in choroidal thickness can be affected by bright light exposure before sleep.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address: ojr4991@korea.ac.kr
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ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28887137 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1729
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Author (up) Akacem, L.D.; Wright, K.P.J.; LeBourgeois, M.K.
Title Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Neurobiol Sleep Circadian Rhythms
Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 27-31
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5-5.0 years (4.7 +/- 0.2 years; 9 females). Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) assessment. Light exposure in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22 +/- 01:04 and 20:07 +/- 00:46, respectively. Average evening light exposure was 710.1 +/- 1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time) had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002). Evening light exposure was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08); however, a partial correlation between evening light exposure and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02). Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light exposure accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-age children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood.
Address Sleep and Development Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
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ISSN 2451-9944 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28042611; PMCID:PMC5193478 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1755
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Author (up) Al Zahrani, M.H.; Omar, A.I.; Abdoon, A.M.O.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Alhogail, A.; Elmubarak, M.; Elamin, Y.E.; AlHelal, M.A.; Alshahrani, A.M.; Abdelgader, T.M.; Saeed, I.; El Gamri, T.B.; Alattas, M.S.; Dahlan, A.A.; Assiri, A.M.; Maina, J.; Li, X.H.; Snow, R.W.
Title Cross-border movement, economic development and malaria elimination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication BMC Medicine Abbreviated Journal BMC Med
Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 98
Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health
Abstract Malaria at international borders presents particular challenges with regards to elimination. International borders share common malaria ecologies, yet neighboring countries are often at different stages of the control-to-elimination pathway. Herein, we present a case study on malaria, and its control, at the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Malaria program activity reports, case data, and ancillary information have been assembled from national health information systems, archives, and other related sources. Information was analyzed as a semi-quantitative time series, between 2000 and 2017, to provide a plausibility framework to understand the possible contributions of factors related to control activities, conflict, economic development, migration, and climate. The malaria recession in the Yemeni border regions of Saudi Arabia is a likely consequence of multiple, coincidental factors, including scaled elimination activities, cross-border vector control, periods of low rainfall, and economic development. The temporal alignment of many of these factors suggests that economic development may have changed the receptivity to the extent that it mitigated against surges in vulnerability posed by imported malaria from its endemic neighbor Yemen. In many border areas of the world, malaria is likely to be sustained through a complex congruence of factors, including poverty, conflict, and migration.
Address Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. rsnow@kemri-wellcome.org
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ISSN 1741-7015 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:29940950 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1948
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