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Author (up) Barducci, A.; Marcoionni, P.; Pippi, I.; Poggesi, M.
Title Effects of light pollution revealed during a nocturnal aerial survey by two hyperspectral imagers Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl. Opt.
Volume 42 Issue 21 Pages 4349
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract A remote-sensing campaign was performed in September 2001 at nighttime under clear-sky conditions before moonrise to assess the level of light pollution of urban and industrial origin. Two hyperspectral sensors, namely, the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer and the Visible Infrared Scanner-200, which provide spectral coverage from the visible to the thermal infrared, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy) on board a Casa 212 airplane. The acquired images were processed to produce radiometrically calibrated data, which were then analyzed and compared with ground-based spectral measurements. Calibrated data acquired at high spectral resolution (∼2.5 nm) showed a maximum scene brightness almost of the same order of magnitude as that observed during similar daytime measurements, whereas their average luminosity was 3 orders of magnitude lower. The measurement analysis confirmed that artificial illumination hinders astronomical observations and produces noticeable effects even at great distances from the sources of the illumination.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-6935 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2438
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Author (up) Barentine, J.C.
Title Going for the Gold : Quantifying and Ranking Visual Night Sky Quality in International Dark Sky Places Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal IJSL
Volume 18 Issue Pages 9-15
Keywords Society; conservation; dark sky places; dark sky; National parks; dark sky parks; national parks; Luminescent Measurements; Night sky brightness
Abstract Since the invention of electric lighting in the nineteenth century, the steadily increasing use of artificial light at night in outdoor spaces has grown to threaten the integrity of dark night skies and nocturnal terrestrial spaces. The conservation community has gradually come to accept the need to protect natural nighttime darkness, which finds expression in dark sky parks and similar protected areas. As these places begin to reap tangible economic benefits in the form of sustainable ‘astrotourism,’ the movement to actively protect them gains strength. The International Dark-Sky Association designates Dark Sky Parks and Reserves under a comparative ranking scheme that assigns night sky quality tiers according to a combination of objective and subjective characteristics, but shortcomings in the consistency of these ratings exist that undermine the consistency and reputation of the designation program. Here we consider potential changes to the qualification regime to make the ratings system more robust for the benefit of future designations.
Address 3323 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2586-1247 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1779
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Author (up) Barentine, J.C.
Title Methods for Assessment and Monitoring of Light Pollution around Ecologically Sensitive Sites Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging
Volume 5 Issue 5 Pages 54
Keywords Instrumentation; Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Review
Abstract Since the introduction of electric lighting over a century ago, and particularly in the decades following the Second World War, indications of artificial light on the nighttime Earth as seen from Earth orbit have increased at a rate exceeding that of world population growth during the same period. Modification of the natural photic environment at night is a clear and imminent consequence of the proliferation of anthropogenic light at night into outdoor spaces, and with this unprecedented change comes a host of known and suspected ecological consequences. In the past two decades, the conservation community has gradually come to view light pollution as a threat requiring the development of best management practices. Establishing those practices demands a means of quantifying the problem, identifying polluting sources, and monitoring the evolution of their impacts through time. The proliferation of solid-state lighting and the changes to source spectral power distribution it has brought relative to legacy lighting technologies add the complication of color to the overall situation. In this paper, I describe the challenge of quantifying light pollution threats to ecologically-sensitive sites in the context of efforts to conserve natural nighttime darkness, assess the current state of the art in detection and imaging technology as applied to this realm, review some recent innovations, and consider future prospects for imaging approaches to provide substantial support for darkness conservation initiatives around the world.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2498
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Author (up) Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K.
Title Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23
Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED
Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.
Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819
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Author (up) Barghini, A.; de Medeiros, B.A.S.
Title Artificial lighting as a vector attractant and cause of disease diffusion Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 118 Issue 11 Pages 1503-1506
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Traditionally, epidemiologists have considered electrification to be a positive factor. In fact, electrification and plumbing are typical initiatives that represent the integration of an isolated population into modern society, ensuring the control of pathogens and promoting public health. Nonetheless, electrification is always accompanied by night lighting that attracts insect vectors and changes people's behavior. Although this may lead to new modes of infection and increased transmission of insect-borne diseases, epidemiologists rarely consider the role of night lighting in their surveys. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the epidemiological evidence concerning the role of lighting in the spread of vector-borne diseases to encourage other researchers to consider it in future studies. DISCUSSION: We present three infectious vector-borne diseases-Chagas, leishmaniasis, and malaria-and discuss evidence that suggests that the use of artificial lighting results in behavioral changes among human populations and changes in the prevalence of vector species and in the modes of transmission. CONCLUSION: Despite a surprising lack of studies, existing evidence supports our hypothesis that artificial lighting leads to a higher risk of infection from vector-borne diseases. We believe that this is related not only to the simple attraction of traditional vectors to light sources but also to changes in the behavior of both humans and insects that result in new modes of disease transmission. Considering the ongoing expansion of night lighting in developing countries, additional research on this subject is urgently needed.
Address Laboratorio de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos, Departamento de Genetica e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil. barghini@iee.usp.br
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20675268; PMCID:PMC2974685 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2184
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