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Author (up) Bennie, J.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 111 Issue 38 Pages 13727-13732
Keywords cathemeral; night
Abstract Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25225371 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 373
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Author (up) Benot, S.; R. Goberna; R. J. Reiter; S. Garcia-Mauriño; C. Osuna; J. M. Guerrero
Title Physiological levels of melatonin contribute to the antioxidant capacity of human serum Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue Pages 59-64
Keywords Human Health
Abstract This work evaluates whether physiological concentrations of the pineal secretory product melatonin contribute to the total antioxidant status (TAS) of human serum. Day and nighttime serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers ranging from 2 to 89 years of age and used to measure melatonin and TAS. Results showed that both melatonin and TAS in human serum exhibited 24 hr variations with nocturnal peak values at 01:00 hr. Moreover, exposure of volunteers to light at night resulted in clear decreases of both TAS and melatonin. Furthermore, when melatonin was removed from sera collected at night, the TAS value of the sample was reduced to basal daytime values. In aging studies, it was found that nocturnal serum values of TAS and melatonin exhibited maximal values during the first four decades; thereafter, these values decreased as age advanced. In 60-year-old individuals, day/night differences in serum melatonin and TAS levels were clearly diminished, by more than 80%, with these differences being completely abolished in older individuals. Our results suggest that melatonin contributes to the total antioxidative capability of human serum. This antioxidant contribution of melatonin is reduced as age advances correlating with the age-related reduction of melatonin.
Address
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 719
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Author (up) Bensch, G.; Peters, J.; Sievert, M.
Title The lighting transition in rural Africa — From kerosene to battery-powered LED and the emerging disposal problem Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Energy for Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal Energy for Sustainable Development
Volume 39 Issue Pages 13-20
Keywords Lighting; Energy
Abstract People without electricity access, numbering today more than 500 million in rural Africa alone, have been using dim and sooty kerosene lamps and candles for their lighting purposes for decades. In the present paper, current lighting usage patterns are systematically assessed using detailed new survey data from seven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. The data makes evident that a transition has taken place in recent years, both unnoticed by and without external support from governmental or non-governmental organizations: the rural population without electricity in Africa has replaced kerosene lights and candles by simple, yet more efficient and cleaner LED lamps powered by non-rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, we also show that the discharged batteries are generally disposed of inappropriately in latrines or the nature. The toxic content of many dry-cell batteries and their accumulation at local litter hotspots may have harmful repercussions on health and the environment. We conclude by suggesting that rapid action is needed to, first, install an effective monitoring system on batteries that enter the continent and, second, put in place an appropriate waste management system.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0973-0826 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2193
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Author (up) Bercz, P.A.; Jaffe, F.
Title Adverse health effects of shift work and shift work sleep disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Dialogue and Diagnosis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages 13-20
Keywords Human Health
Abstract
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 506
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Author (up) Beresford, A.E.; Donald, P.F.; Buchanan, G.M.
Title Repeatable and standardised monitoring of threats to Key Biodiversity Areas in Africa using Google Earth Engine Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 109 Issue Pages 105763
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that make significant contributions to the global persistence of biodiversity, but identification of sites alone is not sufficient to ensure their conservation. Monitoring is essential if pressures on these sites are to be identified, priorities set and appropriate responses developed. Here, we describe how analysis of freely available data on a cloud-processing platform (Google Earth Engine) can be used to assess changes in three example remotely sensed threat indicators (fire frequency, tree loss and night-time lights) over time on KBAs in Africa. We develop easily repeatable methods with shared code that could be applied across any geographic area and could be adapted and applied to other datasets as they become available. Fire frequency was found to have increased significantly on 12.4% of KBAs and 15.9% of ecoregions, whilst rates of forest loss increased significantly on 24.3% of KBAs and 22.6% of ecoregions. There was also evidence of significant increases in night-time lights on over half (53.3%) of KBAs and 39.6% of ecoregions between 1992 and 2013, and on 11.6% of KBAs and 53.0% of ecoregions between 2014 and 2018.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2707
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