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Author (up) Archila Bustos, M.F.; Hall, O.; Andersson, M.
Title Nighttime lights and population changes in Europe 1992-2012 Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Ambio Abbreviated Journal Ambio
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Nighttime satellite photographs of Earth reveal the location of lighting and provide a unique view of the extent of human settlement. Nighttime lights have been shown to correlate with economic development and population but little research has been done on the link between nighttime lights and population change over time. We explore whether population decline is coupled with decline in lighted area and how the age structure of the population and GDP are reflected in nighttime lights. We examine Europe between the period of 1992 and 2012 using a Geographic Information System and regression analysis. The results suggest that population decline is not coupled with decline in lighted area. Instead, human settlement extent is more closely related to the age structure of the population and to GDP. We conclude that declining populations will not necessarily lead to reductions in the extent of land development.
Address Department of Human and Economic Geography, Lund University, Solvegatan 10, 223 62, Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0044-7447 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25773533 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1138
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Author (up) Arendt, J.
Title Biological rhythms during residence in polar regions Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 379-394
Keywords *Acclimatization; Activities of Daily Living; Affect; Antarctic Regions; Arctic Regions; *Biological Clocks; *Circadian Rhythm; *Cold Climate; *Cold Temperature; Energy Metabolism; Feeding Behavior; Humans; Melatonin/metabolism; Personnel Staffing and Scheduling; *Photoperiod; Seasonal Affective Disorder/physiopathology/prevention & control/psychology; *Seasons; Sleep; Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/etiology/physiopathology/*prevention & control/psychology; Time Factors; Workload; Workplace
Abstract At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel are deprived of natural sunlight in winter and have continuous daylight in summer: light of sufficient intensity and suitable spectral composition is the main factor that maintains the 24-h period of human circadian rhythms. Thus, the status of the circadian system is of interest. Moreover, the relatively controlled artificial light conditions in winter are conducive to experimentation with different types of light treatment. The hormone melatonin and/or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) provide probably the best index of circadian (and seasonal) timing. A frequent observation has been a delay of the circadian system in winter. A skeleton photoperiod (2 x 1-h, bright white light, morning and evening) can restore summer timing. A single 1-h pulse of light in the morning may be sufficient. A few people desynchronize from the 24-h day (free-run) and show their intrinsic circadian period, usually >24 h. With regard to general health in polar regions, intermittent reports describe abnormalities in various physiological processes from the point of view of daily and seasonal rhythms, but positive health outcomes are also published. True winter depression (SAD) appears to be rare, although subsyndromal SAD is reported. Probably of most concern are the numerous reports of sleep problems. These have prompted investigations of the underlying mechanisms and treatment interventions. A delay of the circadian system with “normal” working hours implies sleep is attempted at a suboptimal phase. Decrements in sleep efficiency, latency, duration, and quality are also seen in winter. Increasing the intensity of ambient light exposure throughout the day advanced circadian phase and was associated with benefits for sleep: blue-enriched light was slightly more effective than standard white light. Effects on performance remain to be fully investigated. At 75 degrees S, base personnel adapt the circadian system to night work within a week, in contrast to temperate zones where complete adaptation rarely occurs. A similar situation occurs on high-latitude North Sea oil installations, especially when working 18:00-06:00 h. Lack of conflicting light exposure (and “social obligations”) is the probable explanation. Many have problems returning to day work, showing circadian desynchrony. Timed light treatment again has helped to restore normal phase/sleep in a small number of people. Postprandial response to meals is compromised during periods of desynchrony with evidence of insulin resistance and elevated triglycerides, risk factors for heart disease. Only small numbers of subjects have been studied intensively in polar regions; however, these observations suggest that suboptimal light conditions are deleterious to health. They apply equally to people living in temperate zones with insufficient light exposure.
Address Centre for Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK. arendtjo@gmail.com
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22497433; PMCID:PMC3793275 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 143
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Author (up) Arendt, J.; Middleton, B.
Title Human seasonal and circadian studies in Antarctica (Halley, 75 degrees S) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol
Volume 258 Issue Pages 250-258
Keywords Human Activities; Acclimatization/*physiology; Actigraphy; Adult; Antarctic Regions; Behavior/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Female; Heart Rate/physiology; Humans; Libido; Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Photoperiod; *Seasons; Sleep/physiology; Young Adult; *Antarctica; *Circadian; *Light; *Melatonin; *Seasonal
Abstract Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75 degrees S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer. Light of sufficient intensity and spectral composition serves to suppress production of melatonin and to set the circadian timing and the duration of the rhythm. In humans early observations suggested that bright (>2000 lux) white light was needed to suppress melatonin completely. Shortly thereafter winter depression (Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD) was described, and its successful treatment by an artificial summer photoperiod of bright white light, sufficient to shorten melatonin production. At Halley dim artificial light intensity during winter was measured, until 2003, at a maximum of approximately 500 lux in winter. Thus a strong seasonal and circadian time cue was absent. It seemed likely that winter depression would be common in the extended period of winter darkness and could be treated with an artificial summer photoperiod. These observations, and predictions, inspired a long series of studies regarding human seasonal and circadian status, and the effects of light treatment, in a small overwintering, isolated community, living in the same conditions for many months at Halley. We found little evidence of SAD, or change in duration of melatonin production with season. However the timing of the melatonin rhythm itself, and/or that of its metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), was used as a primary marker of seasonal, circadian and treatment changes. A substantial phase delay of melatonin in winter was advanced to summer phase by a two pulse 'skeleton' bright white light treatment. Subsequently a single morning pulse of bright white light was effective with regard to circadian phase and improved daytime performance. The circadian delay evidenced by melatonin was accompanied by delayed sleep (logs and actigraphy): poor sleep is a common complaint in Polar regions. Appropriate extra artificial light, both standard white, and blue enriched, present throughout the day, effectively countered delay in sleep timing and the aMT6s rhythm. The most important factor appeared to be the maximum light experienced. Another manifestation of the winter was a decline in self-rated libido (men only on base at this time). Women on the base showed lower aspects of physical and mental health compared to men. Free-running rhythms were seen in some subjects following night shift, but were rarely found at other times, probably because this base has strongly scheduled activity and leisure time. Complete circadian adaptation during a week of night shift, also seen in a similar situation on North Sea oil rigs, led to problems readapting back to day shift in winter, compared to summer. Here again timed light treatment was used to address the problem. Sleep, alertness and waking performance are critically dependent on optimum circadian phase. Circadian desynchrony is associated with increased risk of major disease in shift workers. These studies provide some groundwork for countering/avoiding circadian desynchrony in rather extreme conditions.
Address Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Electronic address: b.middleton@surrey.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28526480 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2248
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Author (up) Armstrong, S.M.
Title Melatonin and circadian control in mammals Type Journal Article
Year 1989 Publication Experientia Abbreviated Journal Experientia
Volume 45 Issue 10 Pages 932-938
Keywords Human Health; Animals
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ISSN 0014-4754 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 704
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Author (up) Arnaud Da Silva, Jelmer M. Samplonius, Emmi Schlicht, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers
Title Artificial night lighting rather than traffic noise affects the daily timing of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 1037-1047
Keywords animal, birds, dawn chorus, dusk chorus, light intensity, light pollution, noise pollution, seasonality, songbird, weather
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1105
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