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Author Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Bright nights and social interactions: a neglected issue Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 334-339
Keywords Ecology; group dynamics; light at night; light pollution; social consequence; social interactions; social synchrony
Abstract Artificial light at night is an increasing threat for ecological processes. Previous work has highlighted the effects of nighttime light on individuals and on higher levels of biological organization, such as community ecology and ecosystem functioning. Here, we focus on the effects of artificial light at night on social interactions and group dynamics. We discuss 4 main ways of how light pollution is expected to alter social interactions and group dynamics. First, light at night can alter the activity patterns of individuals and this is predicted to affect the social network structure of populations, which in turn affects the transfer of information and diseases. Second, changes in activity patterns and disrupted biological rhythms are expected to reduce behavioral synchrony in social processes such as reproduction, migration, and dispersal. Third, increased light at night is expected to affect the communication between individuals; primarily, it will increase the opportunities for visual social information transfer. Last, artificial nighttime light is expected to lower social competence, with subsequent negative effects on aggressive interactions and group coordination. Throughout the article, we propose testable hypotheses and identify suitable study species, and we hope that this article inspires future research on the effects of bright nights on social interactions and group dynamics.
Address Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587 Berlin, Germany
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Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1082
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Author Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W.
Title Spotlight on fish: Light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 511 Issue Pages 516-522
Keywords Animals; Perca fluviatilis; Light pollution; Light intensity; Non-invasive hormone measurement; Fish
Abstract Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3 h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1087
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Author Marquenie, J.M.; Donners, M.; Poot, H.; Steckel W.; de Witt, B.
Title Bird-Friendly Light Sources: Adapting the Spectral Composition of Artificial Lighting Type Magazine Article
Year 2013 Publication IEEE Industry Application Magazine Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 56-62
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1088
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Author Lely van der, S.; Frey, S.; Garbazza, C., Wirz-Justice, A.; Jenni, O.G.; Steiner, R.; Wolf, S.; Cajochen, C.; Bromundt, V.; Schmidt, C.
Title Blue Blocker Glasses as a Countermeasure for Alerting Effects of Evening Light-Emitting Diode Screen Exposure in Male Teenagers Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Adolescent Health Abbreviated Journal J. Adolesc. Health
Volume 56 Issue Pages 113-119
Keywords LED screen use; Alerting effects of light; Sleepewake cycle; Melatonin; Sleepiness; Attention
Abstract Purpose: Adolescents prefer sleep and wake times that are considerably delayed compared with younger children or adults. Concomitantly, multimedia use in the evening is prevalent among teenagers and involves light exposure, particularly in the blue-wavelength range to which the biological clock and its associated arousal promotion system is the most sensitive. We investigated whether the use of blue lighteblocking glasses (BB) during the evening, while sitting in front of a light-emitting diode (LED) computer screen, favors sleep initiating mechanisms at the subjective, cognitive, and physiological level.

Methods: The ambulatory part of the study comprised 2 weeks during which the sleepewake cycle, evening light exposure, and multimedia screen use were monitored in thirteen 15- to 17-year-old healthy male volunteers. BB or clear lenses as control glasses were worn in a counterbalanced crossover design for 1 week each, during the evening hours while using LED screens. Afterward, participants entered the laboratory and underwent an evening blue lighteenriched LED screen exposure during which they wore the same glasses as during the preceding week. Salivary melatonin, subjective sleepiness, and vigilant attention were regularly assayed, and subsequent sleep was recorded by polysomnography.

Results: Compared with clear lenses, BB significantly attenuated LED-induced melatonin suppression in the evening and decreased vigilant attention and subjective alertness before bedtime. Visually scored sleep stages and behavioral measures collected the morning after were not modified.

Conclusions: BB glasses may be useful in adolescents as a countermeasure for alerting effects induced by light exposure through LED screens and therefore potentially impede the negative effects modern lighting imposes on circadian physiology in the evening.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1089
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Author Arnaud Da Silva, Jelmer M. Samplonius, Emmi Schlicht, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers
Title Artificial night lighting rather than traffic noise affects the daily timing of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 1037-1047
Keywords animal, birds, dawn chorus, dusk chorus, light intensity, light pollution, noise pollution, seasonality, songbird, weather
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1105
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