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Author Brüning A., Hölker, F., Franke, S., Preuer, T., Kloas, W.
Title Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal
Volume 543 Issue Pages 214-222
Keywords Animals
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1294
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Author Holzhauer S.I.J.; Franke S.; Kyba C.C.M.; Manfrin A.; Klenke R.; Voigt C.C.; Lewanzik D.; Oehlert M.; Monaghan M.T.; Schneider S.; Heller S.; Kuechly H.; Brüning A.; Honnen A.-C.; Hölker F.
Title Out of the Dark: Establishing a Large-Scale Field Experiment to Assess the Effects of Artificial Light at Night on Species and Food Webs Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue 11 Pages 15593-15616
Keywords ALAN; artificial light at night; ecosystems; freshwater; light pollution; loss of the night; photometric characterization; riparian; Verlust der Nacht
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the biodiversity and food webs of illuminated ecosystems. We developed a large-scale experimental infrastructure to study the effects of ALAN on a light-naïve, natural riparian (i.e., terrestrial-aquatic) ecosystem. Twelve street lights (20 m apart) arranged in three rows parallel to an agricultural drainage ditch were installed on each of two sites located in a grassland ecosystem in northern Germany. A range of biotic, abiotic, and photometric data are collected regularly to study the short- and long-term effects of ALAN on behavior, species interactions, physiology, and species composition of communities. Here we describe the infrastructure setup and data collection methods, and characterize the study area including photometric measurements. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between sites in the period before illumination. Results of one short-term experiment, carried out with one site illuminated and the other acting as a control, demonstrate the attraction of ALAN by the immense and immediate increase of insect catches at the lit street lights. The experimental setup provides a unique platform for carrying out interdisciplinary research on sustainable lighting.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Müggelseedamm 301/310, 12587 Berlin, Germany; holzhauer(at)igb-berlin.de
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Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1305
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Author Brons JA; Bullogh JD; Rea MS
Title Outdoor site-lighting performance: A comprehensive and quantitative framework for assessing light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 40 Issue Pages 201-204
Keywords lighting technology, lighting design
Abstract Outdoor Site-Lighting Performance (OSP) is a comprehensive method for predicting and measuring three different aspects of light pollution: glow, trespass and glare. OSP is based upon the philosophy that a rational framework is necessary for optimising private and public desires for and against night-time lighting. Results are presented from over one hundred outdoor lighting installations that provide an empirical foundation for acknowledging the benefits of night-time lighting while establishing limits on light pollution. Recommended limits for glow, trespass and glare are offered to stimulate discussion among all stakeholders concerned with night-time lighting.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1426
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Author Grunsven van, Roy H.A.; Creemers, Raymond; Joosten, Kris; Donners Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M.
Title Behaviour of migrating toads under artificial lights differs from other phases of their life cycle Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Amphibia-Reptilia Abbreviated Journal AMRE
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Keywords animal, amphibia, Anura, fragmentation, light pollution, mitigation, phototaxis, spectra
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1568
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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Light Pollution Reduction Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords ligting technology; awareness; skyglow, lighting design
Abstract Artificial light at night is an irreplaceable technology for our society and its activities at nighttime. But this indispensable tool has detrimental side effects, which have only come to light in the past 10–20 years. This chapter reviews ways to implement technology in order to lower the impact of artificial light at night on nature and humans. Further, it provides guidelines for environmental protection and scientific approaches to reduce the increase in light pollution and discusses the urgent need for further research. Measures to prevent obtrusive light and unintentional trespass into homes and natural habitats are

mostly simple solutions like shielding luminaires and predominantly require awareness. Shades are another effective tool to reduce trespass from interior lights. Especially in greenhouses, the use of shades significantly reduces the contribution to skyglow. Artificial light should be switched off whenever it is not needed. Smart, flexible lighting systems can help to use artificial light with precision. The choice of the appropriate illumination has to be balanced by the needs for optimal visibility, human well-being, environmental conservation and protection of the night sky. For visibility, conditions comparable to bright moonlit nights (0.3 lx) are sufficient. Low-level streetlights that produce only 1–3 lx at the surface meet the requirement of facial cognition. Although this light level might be too low for road safety, a consideration of maximum illumination levels in street lighting is recommended. The spectral power distribution of illuminants can impact several environmental parameters. For example, illuminants emitting short wavelengths can sup- press melatonin in higher vertebrates (including humans), are attracting many insect species, and contribute in skyglow above average. Recent findings in different measures for energy efficiency of illuminants at scotopic or mesopic vision conditions compared to photopic conditions indicate that the assessment of lighting products needs fundamental revision. Further research is crucially needed to create refuges for light-sensitive species at night, to measure the impact of artificial light on nature, and also to monitor the improvements of light pollution-reducing measures. Decrees in various regions have helped to lower the impact of artificial light at night significantly. Measures to reduce the impact of artificial light at night need to be carefully balanced with the surrounding environment. Thoughtful guidelines are crucial to reducing the rapid increase in sky brightness worldwide. These guidelines need to be made accessible for decision makers especially in areas which require new light installations.
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Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Editor Karlicek, Robert Sun, Ching-Chern Zissis, Georgis Ma, Ruiqing
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1569
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