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Author Deveson, Sharon L; Arendt, Josephine; Forsyth, Isabel A
Title Sensitivity of Goats to a Light Pulse During the Night as Assessed by Suppression of Melatonin Concentrations in the Plasma Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 169-177
Keywords animals; goat; Circadian Rhythm; Light intensity
Abstract This study investigates the ability of a 1 h light pulse of different intensities at night to suppress plasma melatonin in goats. Six female Saanen dairy goats, about 2 yr old, were housed in a light-tight shed. The goats were habituated for 1 wk to an 8L: 16D photoperiod (40.70 ± 4.16 &#956;W/cm2; 137 ± 14 lux), lights on 0800 h. A 1 h light pulse, of different intensity on each occasion, was given from 1900 to 2000 h. Light intensity was measured by using a lux meter (mean of 36 measurements at goat's eye level). Five different light intensities were given during December in the order 4.22 ± 0.62 &#956;W/cm2 (14.2 ± 2.1 lux), 0.68 ± 0.09 &#956;W/cm2 (2.3 ± 0.3 lux), 0.26 ± 0.004 &#956;W/cm2 (O.87 ± 0.14 lux), darkness, 40.70 ± 4.16 &#956;W/cm2 (137 ± 14 lux), with 1–3 d between treatments. The goats were bled hourly from 1500 to 1900 h and every 15 min from 1900 to 2100 h, and a last bleed occurred at 2200 h. Dark-phase samples were taken in dim red light (<0.03 &#956;W/cm2; 0.1 lux). Plasma was assayed for melatonin by radioimmunoassay. Suppression of melatonin concentrations increased as light intensity increased as follows: Darkness, 0%; 0.26 ± 0.004 &#956;W/cm2; 0%; 0.68 ± 0.09 &#956;W/cm2; 43.1%; 4.22 ± 0.62 &#956;W/cm2, 71.1%; 40.70 ± 4.16 &#956;W/cm2, 81.2%. Suppression was significant (P<0.05) at light intensities >0.68 &#956;W/cm2, 2.3 lux. A hyperbolic relationship existed between percent suppression and light intensities.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1585
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Author Digby, A; Towsey, M; Bell, B D; Teal, PD
Title Temporal and environmental influences on the vocal behaviour of a nocturnal bird Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 591-599
Keywords animals; birds; animal behaviour
Abstract Temporal and environmental variation in vocal activity can provide information on avian behaviour and call function not available to short-term experimental studies. Inter-sexual differences in this variation can provide insight into selection effects. Yet factors influencing vocal behaviour have not been assessed in many birds, even those monitored by acoustic methods. This applies to the New Zealand kiwi (Apterygidae), for which call censuses are used extensively in conservation monitoring, yet which have poorly understood acoustic ecology. We investigated little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii vocal behaviour over 3 yr, measuring influences on vocal activity in both sexes from time of night, season, weather conditions and lunar cycle. We tested hypotheses that call rate variation reflects call function, foraging efficiency, historic predation risk and variability in sound transmission, and that there are inter-sexual differences in call function. Significant seasonal variation showed that vocalisations were important in kiwi reproduction, and inter-sexual synchronisation of call rates indicated that contact, pair-bonding or resource defence were key functions. All weather variables significantly affected call rates, with elevated calling during increased humidity and ground moisture indicating a relation between vocal activity and foraging conditions. A significant decrease in calling activity on cloudy nights, combined with no moonlight effect, suggests an impact of light pollution in this species. These influences on vocal activity provide insight into kiwi call function, have direct consequences for conservation monitoring of kiwi, and have wider implications in understanding vocal behaviour in a range of nocturnal birds.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1586
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Author Downs, N C; Beaton, V; Guest, J; Polanski, J.; Robinson, S L.; Racey, P A
Title The effects of illuminating the roost entrance on the emergence behaviour of Pipistrellus pygmaeus Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 111 Issue 2 Pages 247.252
Keywords animals; flying mammals; animal behavior; light colour
Abstract In an attempt to increase the accuracy of roost emergence counts for a monitoring programme, the exits of two Pipistrellus pygmaeus roosts were illuminated with light of different colours and intensities. Light intensity affected bat emergence more than light colour. At one roost there was no significant difference in the bat emergence pattern between when the roost exit received no illumination and when it was illuminated with red light. The use of the latter is proposed to increase the accuracy of bat roost emergence counts.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1587
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Author Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Title Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue Pages 159-163
Keywords animals; rodents; metabolism; health
Abstract The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past &#8764;120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24 h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1588
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Author Fukuda, H.; Torisawa, S.; Sawada, Y.; Takagi, T.
Title Developmental changes in behavioral and retinomotor responses of Pacific bluefin tuna on exposure to sudden changes in illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal
Volume 305 Issue 1-4 Pages 73-78
Keywords animals; fish; animal behavior
Abstract Schooling behavior traits during the process of retinomotor response from scotopic to photopic vision were examined in cultivated juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) at 3 different ages. After a sudden change in illumination from darkness to 300 lx, retinal adaptations changed from scotopic to photopic vision. Retinomotor and schooling indices showed strong agreement, with juvenile PBTs forming polarized schools upon complete retinal adaptation to photopic vision. The behavioral and retinal adaptation to sudden illumination took 20, 15, and 10 min after illumination in PBT 25, 40, and 55 days after hatching (dah). At 40 dah, PBT took a longer time to adapt than fish aged 55 dah and showed the highest swimming speed, including momentary bursts of swimming immediately after illumination. This suggested that these fish were swimming at high speed under poor visibility conditions. In contrast, PBT at 55 dah showed a gradual increase in swimming speed that correlated with their retinal adaptation. Therefore, behavioral and retinal adaptation traits changed during growth, suggesting that the high mortality in PBT around 40 dah, due to collisions with the tank and net walls at dawn, may be because these adapt more slowly than fish at 55 dah and were swimming at a relatively high speed under conditions of poor visibility.
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Call Number (down) LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1589
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