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Author Martinez, L. R.
Title How Much Should We Trust the Dictator's GDP Estimates? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal SSRN
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing
Abstract I study the manipulation of GDP statistics in weak and non-democracies. I show that the elasticity of official GDP figures to nighttime lights is systematically larger in more authoritarian regimes. This autocracy gradient in the night-lights elasticity of GDP cannot be explained by differences in a wide range of factors that may affect the mapping of night lights to GDP, such as economic structure, statistical capacity, rates of urbanization or electrification. The gradient is larger when there is a stronger incentive to exaggerate economic performance (years of low growth, before elections or after becoming ineligible for foreign aid) and is only present for GDP sub-components that rely on government information and have low third-party verification. The results indicate that yearly GDP growth rates are inflated by a factor of between 1.15 and 1.3 in the most authoritarian regimes. Correcting for manipulation substantially changes our understanding of comparative economic performance at the turn of the XXI century.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1926
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Author Spoelstra, K.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; van Dis, N.E.; Visser, M.E.
Title No effect of artificial light of different colors on commuting Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) in a choice experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 506-510
Keywords Animals
Abstract Progressive illumination at night poses an increasing threat to species worldwide. Light at night is particularly problematic for bats as most species are nocturnal and often cross relatively large distances when commuting between roosts and foraging grounds. Earlier studies have shown that illumination of linear structures in the landscape disturbs commuting bats, and that the response of bats to light may strongly depend on the light spectrum. Here, we studied the impact of white, green, and red light on commuting Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). We used a unique location where commuting bats cross a road by flying through two identical, parallel culverts underneath. We illuminated the culverts with white, red, and green light, with an intensity of 5 lux at the water surface. Bats had to choose between the two culverts, each with a different lighting condition every night. We presented all paired combinations of white, green, and red light and dark control in a factorial design. Contrary to our expectations, the number of bat passes through a culvert was unaffected by the presence of light. Furthermore, bats did not show any preference for light color. These results show that the response of commuting Daubenton's bats to different colors of light at night with a realistic intensity may be limited when passing through culverts.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29808964 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1927
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Author Russart, K.L.G.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Artificial light at night alters behavior in laboratory and wild animals Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 401-408
Keywords Animals; Review
Abstract Life has evolved to internalize and depend upon the daily and seasonal light cycles to synchronize physiology and behavior with environmental conditions. The nightscape has been vastly changed in response to the use of artificial lighting. Wildlife is now often exposed to direct lighting via streetlights or indirect lighting via sky glow at night. Because many activities rely on daily and seasonal light cues, the effects of artificial light at night could be extensive, but remain largely unknown. Laboratory studies suggest exposure to light at night can alter typical timing of daily locomotor activity and shift the timing of foraging/food intake to the daytime in nocturnal rodents. Additionally, nocturnal rodents decrease anxiety-like behaviors (i.e., spend more time in the open and increase rearing up) in response to even dim light at night. These are all likely maladaptive responses in the wild. Photoperiodic animals rely on seasonal changes in day length as a cue to evoke physiological and behavioral modifications to anticipate favorable and unfavorable conditions for survival and reproduction. Light at night can mask detection of short days, inappropriately signal long days, and thus desynchronize seasonal reproductive activities. We review laboratory and the sparse field studies that address the effects of exposure to artificial light at night to propose that exposure to light at night disrupts circadian and seasonal behavior in wildlife, which potentially decreases individual fitness and modifies ecosystems.
Address Behavioral Medicine and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29806740 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1928
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Author Cai, W.; Yue, J.; Dai, Q.; Hao, L.; Lin, Y.; Shi, W.; Huang, Y.; Wei, M.
Title The impact of room surface reflectance on corneal illuminance and rule-of-thumb equations for circadian lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 141 Issue Pages 288-297
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Recently, corneal illuminance attracts much attention because it is closely related to important functions of indoor lighting. Especially, applying circadian light in the built environment places a challenging requirement on indirect corneal illuminance. In this work, rule-of-thumb equations are proposed to guide circadian lighting design: (i) for artificial lighting, Ecor,avg (i) = (Φ/C1) · ρ/(1−ρ′), where Ecor,avg (i) is the average indirect corneal illuminance at standing or sitting positions, Φ is the initial flux from luminaires, C1 is a constant comparable to the total room surface area, ρ is the reflectance of the surface where the first reflection occurs, and ρ′ is the area-weighted average of surface reflectance; and (ii) for daylighting, Ecor,avg (i) = C2 · WWR · ρ/(1−ρ′), where C2 is a constant, and WWR represents the window-to-wall ratio.

The equations above are validated by comparing against numerical simulation data obtained with the Radiance software. For artificial lighting simulation, various combinations of room surface reflectance, initial light distribution, and WWR are investigated; and for daylighting simulation, different combinations of surface reflectance, WWR, and geographic location are analyzed. The good fits to simulation data indicate that the proposed simple equations can provide reasonably accurate results for quick feedback at the field. It is also demonstrated that room surface reflectance has a dominant impact on indirect corneal illuminance. The approach of improving surface reflectance is more favorable than increasing luminaire flux or expanding window area, and therefore should be the recommended approach to achieve quality and efficient circadian lighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1929
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Author Wu, B.; Wang, Y.; Wu, X.; Liu, D.; Xu, D.; Wang, F.
Title On-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and countermeasures Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Military Medical Research Abbreviated Journal Mil Med Res
Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 17
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on. Furthermore, we discussed and oriented the prospect of researches on sleep in space.
Address State Key Laboratory of Space Medicine Fundamentals and Application, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, No. 26 Beiqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100094, People's Republic of China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-9369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29843821; PMCID:PMC5975626 Approved no
Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1930
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