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Author Cohen, J.H.; Berge, J.; Moline, M.A.; Sorensen, A.J.; Last, K.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Renaud, P.E.; Leu, E.S.; Grenvald, J.; Cottier, F.; Cronin, H.; Menze, S.; Norgren, P.; Varpe, O.; Daase, M.; Darnis, G.; Johnsen, G.
Title Is Ambient Light during the High Arctic Polar Night Sufficient to Act as a Visual Cue for Zooplankton? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0126247
Keywords Animals
Abstract The light regime is an ecologically important factor in pelagic habitats, influencing a range of biological processes. However, the availability and importance of light to these processes in high Arctic zooplankton communities during periods of 'complete' darkness (polar night) are poorly studied. Here we characterized the ambient light regime throughout the diel cycle during the high Arctic polar night, and ask whether visual systems of Arctic zooplankton can detect the low levels of irradiance available at this time. To this end, light measurements with a purpose-built irradiance sensor and coupled all-sky digital photographs were used to characterize diel skylight irradiance patterns over 24 hours at 79 degrees N in January 2014 and 2015. Subsequent skylight spectral irradiance and in-water optical property measurements were used to model the underwater light field as a function of depth, which was then weighted by the electrophysiologically determined visual spectral sensitivity of a dominant high Arctic zooplankter, Thysanoessa inermis. Irradiance in air ranged between 1-1.5 x 10-5 mumol photons m-2 s-1 (400-700 nm) in clear weather conditions at noon and with the moon below the horizon, hence values reflect only solar illumination. Radiative transfer modelling generated underwater light fields with peak transmission at blue-green wavelengths, with a 465 nm transmission maximum in shallow water shifting to 485 nm with depth. To the eye of a zooplankter, light from the surface to 75 m exhibits a maximum at 485 nm, with longer wavelengths (>600 nm) being of little visual significance. Our data are the first quantitative characterisation, including absolute intensities, spectral composition and photoperiod of biologically relevant solar ambient light in the high Arctic during the polar night, and indicate that some species of Arctic zooplankton are able to detect and utilize ambient light down to 20-30m depth during the Arctic polar night.
Address The University Centre in Svalbard, 9171, Longyearbyen, Norway; Applied Underwater Robotics Lab, Depts of Biology and Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26039111; PMCID:PMC4454649 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1277
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Author Lin, P.; Yang, L.; Zhao, S.
Title Urbanization effects on Chinese mammal and amphibian richness: a multi-scale study using the urban-rural gradient approach Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Environ. Res. Commun.
Volume 2 Issue 12 Pages (down) 125002
Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing
Abstract The scale and extent of global urbanization are unprecedented and increasing. As urbanization generally encroaches on natural habitats and the urban ecological footprint reaches far beyond the city limits, how urbanization affects biodiversity has received increasing attention from the scientific community. Nonetheless, the comprehensive syntheses of urbanization consequences for biodiversity, including diverse taxonomic groups, across multiple spatial scales and spanning a wide gradient range of urbanization intensity are still insufficient. Here, based on the urban-rural gradient approach, we assessed the effects of urbanization on Chinese mammal and amphibian richness across the entire urbanization gradient (i.e., urbanization level from 0 to 1) at the national, regional and urban agglomeration scales. We used the global mammal and amphibian distribution data along with corresponding background climate, habitat conditions and socioeconomic activities data for analysis. Our results revealed a detailed and diverse pattern of Chinese mammal and amphibian richness along the entire spectrum of urbanization gradient across three spatial scales. And an approximately monotonic decrease only existed in certain urban agglomerations. The imprint of urbanization on mammal and amphibian richness were largely masked by the overall primacy of background climate at the national and regional scales. As the scale of analysis shifting from the country to urban agglomerations, urbanization-associated variables and locally specific limiting factors started to play important roles in driving the richness patterns. Moreover, the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis can explain the relationship between biodiversity pressure and urbanization activities in certain Chinese urban agglomerations. However, the findings of urbanization effects on biodiversity using the urban-rural gradient analysis should be interpreted with caution because many possible driving forces simultaneously present along the urban-rural gradient and are very challenging to attribute.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2515-7620 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3252
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Angular Emission Function of a City and Skyglow Modeling: A Critical Perspective Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Pasp
Volume 128 Issue 970 Pages (down) 124001
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is a common approach to solving the transfer of electromagnetic energy in heterogeneous disperse media, such as atmospheric environment. One-dimensional RTE is a linear boundary value problem that is well suited to plane-parallel atmosphere with no diffuse intensity entering the top of the atmosphere. In nighttime regime, the ground-based light sources illuminate the atmosphere at its bottom interface. However, the light-pollution models conventionally use radiant intensity function rather than radiance. This might potentially result in a number of misconceptions. We focused on similarities and fundamental differences between both functions and clarified distinct consequences for the modeling of skyglow from finite-sized and semi-infinite light-emitting flat surfaces. Minimum requirements to be fulfilled by a City Emission Function (CEF) are formulated to ensure a successful solution of standard and inverse problems. It has been shown that the horizon radiance of a flat surface emitting in accordance with Garstang's function (GEF) would exceed any limit, meaning that the GEF is not an appropriate tool to model skyglow from distant sources. We developed two alternative CEFs to remedy this problem through correction of direct upward emissions; the most important strengths of the modified CEFs are detailed in this paper. Numerical experiments on sky luminance under well-posed and ill-posed boundary conditions were made for two extreme uplight fractions (F) and for three discrete distances from the city edge. The errors induced by replacing radiance with radiant intensity function in the RTE are generally low (15%–30%) if F is as large as 0.15, but alteration of the luminance may range over 1–3 orders of magnitude if F approaches zero. In the latter case, the error margin can increase by a factor of 10–100 or even 1000, even if the angular structure of luminance patterns suffers only weak changes. This is why such a shift in luminance magnitudes can be mistakenly interpreted as the effect of inaccurate estimate of lumens per head of the population rather than the effect of cosine distortion due to ill-posed inputs to the RTE. For that reason, a thorough revision (and/or remediation) of theoretical and computational models is suggested.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1564
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Author Liu, H.; Ma, L.; Xu, L.
Title Estimating spatiotemporal dynamics of county-level fossil fuel consumption based on integrated nighttime light data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 123427
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Rapid urbanization has resulted in increased fossil fuel consumption in China, which is closely related to regional sustainable development and CO2 emissions. This study proposed an improved model to estimate fossil fuel consumption on the county scale in Shandong to understand the dynamics of fossil fuel consumption. This improved model is beneficial for establishing energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction policies for both Shandong and other regions in China. Because of the lack of data on a county scale, this study applied panel data analysis from 1992 to 2017 by integrating the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) and NPP-VIIRS (Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suit) nighttime light data. Results showed that (1) The new method performed better than previous methods on estimating fossil fuel consumption; (2) Fossil fuel consumption has been rapidly growing in all cities and most districts and counties, mainly concentrated in west and east central Shandong; (3) Regions with high fossil fuel consumption shifted from west central Shandong to east central on the city level, and expanded from the east central to the entire central region on the county level; (4) In regions with a lower level of development, fossil fuel consumption tended to grow faster. These results will improve the understanding of fossil fuel consumption over the long term on county scales, and are beneficial for creating policies on regional energy savings and CO2 emission reduction.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3060
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Author Ye, Y.; Xue, X.; Huang, L.; Gan, M.; Tong, C.; Wang, K.; Deng, J.
Title A new perspective to map the supply and demand of artificial night light based on Loujia1-01 and urban big data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume 276 Issue Pages (down) 123244
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The notable increase in artificial night light (ANL) induced by the rapid urbanization process has been widely studied, but a deep understanding of the supply and demand status of ANL is still lacking. This paper attempts to map the supply and demand of ANL from the human perspective by using advanced Loujia1-01 nighttime imagery and social media derived population density (PD) data, which provides a new tool for light regulation in urban management. The bivariate clustering based k-means algorithm and template matching technique are integrated to delineate mismatch regions at the block scale to further analyze the underlying reason for unbalanced status. The results showed that the high supply but low demand (HSLD) ANL status was the leading component in the mismatch regions, occupying more than 650,000 ha and mainly occurring in the city center. The HSLD proportion was considerable in terms of public services (44%), commercial (40%), industrial (39%), transportation (56%), and green space areas (53%). Moreover, the HSLD area notably increased 946 ha over time from 18:00 to 22:00. The measurements for validation obtained by field investigation showed highly linear relationship with ANL (R2 = 0.75) and PD (R2 = 0.62), and the mapping results were consistent with the actual conditions. This study reveals the highly unbalanced ANL status, and appeals to planners for the establishment of optimal lighting regulations to alleviate disruptive effects.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3070
Permanent link to this record