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Author Andrade-Pacheco, R.; Savory, D.J.; Midekisa, A.; Gething, P.W.; Sturrock, H.J.W.; Bennett, A.
Title Household electricity access in Africa (2000-2013): Closing information gaps with model-based geostatistics Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0214635
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Household electricity access data in Africa are scarce, particularly at the subnational level. We followed a model-based Geostatistics approach to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013 at a 5 km resolution. We collated data from 69 nationally representative household surveys conducted in Africa and incorporated nighttime lights imagery as well as land use and land cover data to produce maps of electricity access between 2000 and 2013. The information produced here can be an aid for understanding of how electricity access has changed in the region during this 14 year period. The resolution and the continental scale makes it possible to combine these data with other sources in applications in the socio-economic field, both at a local or regional level.
Address Malaria Elimination Initiative, Institute for Global Health Sciences, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States of America
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31042727; PMCID:PMC6493706 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2531
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Author Falchi, F.; Bará, S.
Title A linear systems approach to protect the night sky: implications for current and future regulations Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 7 Issue 12 Pages (down) 201501
Keywords Skyglow; Regulation; Lighting
Abstract The persistent increase of artificial light emissions is causing a progressive brightening of the night sky in most regions of the world. This process is a threat for the long-term sustainability of the scientific and educational activity of ground-based astronomical observatories operating in the optical range. Huge investments in building, scientific and technical workforce, equipment and maintenance can be at risk if the increasing light pollution levels hinder the capability of carrying out the top-level scientific observations for which these key scientific infrastructures were built. Light pollution has other negative consequences, as e.g. biodiversity endangering and the loss of the starry sky for recreational, touristic and preservation of cultural heritage. The traditional light pollution mitigation approach is based on imposing conditions on the photometry of individual sources, but the aggregated effects of all sources in the territory surrounding the observatories are seldom addressed in the regulations. We propose that this approach shall be complemented with a top-down, ambient artificial skyglow immission limits strategy, whereby clear limits are established to the admissible deterioration of the night sky above the observatories. We describe the general form of the indicators that can be employed to this end, and develop linear models relating their values to the artificial emissions across the territory. This approach can be easily applied to other protection needs, like e.g. to protect nocturnal ecosystems, and it is expected to be useful for making informed decisions on public lighting, in the context of wider spatial planning projects.
Address
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ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3260
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Author Lu, Y.; Coops, N.C.
Title Bright lights, big city: Causal effects of population and GDP on urban brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0199545
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities. We further these approaches, by taking a trans-pacific view, and examine how an array of socio-economic ind0icators of 25 culturally and economically important urban hubs relate to long term patterns in NTL for the past 21 years. We undertake a classic econometric approach-panel causality tests which allow analysis of the causal relationships between NTL and socio-economic development across the region. The panel causality test results show a contrasting effect of population and gross domestic product (GDP) on NTL in fast, and slowly, changing cities. Information derived from this study quantitatively chronicles urban activities in the pan-Pacific region and potentially offers data for studies that spatially track local progress of sustainable urban development goals.
Address Integrated Remote Sensing Studio, Forest Recourses Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29995923 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1963
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Author Yao, Y.; Chen, D.; Chen, L.; Wang, H.; Guan, Q.
Title A time series of urban extent in China using DSMP/OLS nighttime light data Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 13 Issue 5 Pages (down) e0198189
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Urban extent data play an important role in urban management and urban studies, such as monitoring the process of urbanization and changes in the spatial configuration of urban areas. Traditional methods of extracting urban-extent information are primarily based on manual investigations and classifications using remote sensing images, and these methods have such problems as large costs in labor and time and low precision. This study proposes an improved, simplified and flexible method for extracting urban extents over multiple scales and the construction of spatiotemporal models using DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL) for practical situations. This method eliminates the regional temporal and spatial inconsistency of thresholding NTL in large-scale and multi-temporal scenes. Using this method, we have extracted the urban extents and calculated the corresponding areas on the county, municipal and provincial scales in China from 2000 to 2012. In addition, validation with the data of reference data shows that the overall accuracy (OA), Kappa and F1 Scores were 0.996, 0.793, and 0.782, respectively. We increased the spatial resolution of the urban extent to 500 m (approximately four times finer than the results of previous studies). Based on the urban extent dataset proposed above, we analyzed changes in urban extents over time and observed that urban sprawl has grown in all of the counties of China. We also identified three patterns of urban sprawl: Early Urban Growth, Constant Urban Growth and Recent Urban Growth. In addition, these trends of urban sprawl are consistent with the western, eastern and central cities of China, respectively, in terms of their spatial distribution, socioeconomic characteristics and historical background. Additionally, the urban extents display the spatial configurations of urban areas intuitively. The proposed urban extent dataset is available for download and can provide reference data and support for future studies of urbanization and urban planning.
Address School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei province, China
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29795685 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1924
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Author Rydell, J.; Elfstrom, M.; Eklof, J.; Sanchez-Navarro, S.
Title Dramatic decline of northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii in Sweden over 30 years Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R Soc Open Sci
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages (down) 191754
Keywords Animals; Lepidoptera; climate change; light pollution; line transects; long-term monitoring; population decline
Abstract We monitored northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) acoustically along a 27 km road transect at weekly intervals in 1988, 1989 and 1990, and again in 2016 and 2017. The methodology of data collection and the transect were the same throughout, except that the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights along parts of the road were replaced by sodium lights between the two survey periods. Counts along sections of the transect with and without street-lights were analysed separately. The frequency of bat encounters in unlit sections showed an average decline of 3.0% per year, corresponding to a reduction of 59% between 1988 and 2017. Sections with street-lights showed an 85% decline over the same period (6.3% per year). The decline represents a real reduction in the abundance of bats rather than an artefact of changed distribution of bats away from roads. Our study conforms with another long-term survey of the same species on the Baltic island of Gotland. Our results agree with predictions based on climate change models. They also indicate that the decline was caused directly by the disuse of the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights, which may have resulted in lower availability of preferred prey (moths). In the 1980s, E. nilssonii was considered the most common bat in Sweden, but the subsequent decline would rather qualify it for vulnerable or endangered status in the national Red List of Threatened Species.
Address Biology Department, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32257332; PMCID:PMC7062070 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3023
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