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Author Falchi, F.; Furgoni, R.; Gallaway, T.A.; Rybnikova, N.A.; Portnov, B.A.; Baugh, K.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Light pollution in USA and Europe: The good, the bad and the ugly Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 248 Issue Pages (down) 109227
Keywords
Abstract Light pollution is a worldwide problem that has a range of adverse effects on human health and natural eco-systems. Using data from the New World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, VIIRS-recorded radiance and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, we compared light pollution levels, and the light flux to the population size and GDP at the State and County levels in the USA and at Regional (NUTS2) and Province (NUTS3) levels inEurope. We found 6800-fold differences between the most and least polluted regions in Europe, 120-fold differences in their light flux per capita, and 267-fold differences influx per GDP unit. Yet, we found even greater differences between US counties: 200,000-fold differences in sky pollution, 16,000-fold differences in light flux per capita, and 40,000-fold differences in light flux per GDP unit. These findings may inform policy-makers, helping to reduce energy waste and adverse environmental, cultural and health consequences associated with light pollution.
Address STIL – Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute, Thiene, Italy; Italy. falchi@lightpollution.it(at)istil.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2593
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title Ground albedo impacts on higher-order scattering spectral radiances of night sky Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 239 Issue Pages (down) 106670
Keywords skyglow
Abstract The contribution from ground reflected light to the night sky radiance is of increased interest because of constant modernization of street lighting systems that now efficiently eliminate light emissions above the horizontal plane, so the appreciable fraction of artificial light directed upwards is from ground reflection. Diffuse light of a night sky shows a positive correlation with ground albedo (α), but it seems there is no linear trend between α and the night sky brightness (NSB), at least not for all sky elements, and, the mechanism of this relationship becomes even more complicated due to multiple scattering effects. The extent to which the ground reflectance influences the higher-order scattering radiance of night sky, and, the factors that initiate the crossover from single- to multiple-scattering dominance of the sky glow has been virtually unexplored until now.

We demonstrate here that albedo-induced effects in NSB exhibit an angular dependence, with amplitudes enhanced towards shorter wavelengths. For low values of ground reflectance and at short distances from a light source, the second-scattering radiance is found to be only a few percent of the first-order scattering radiance. However, the ratio of a higher- to the first-order scattering radiance gradually increases near horizon, specifically at the side opposite to the azimuthal position of the light source. Also the NSB in blue band has decreasing gradation tendency when increasing the altitude above sea level. The findings in this paper are significant in a proper incorporation of higher-order scattering in modeling the NSB under elevated reflectance conditions, and may be critical for saving computational time.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2679
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Author Xu, P.; Wang, Q.; Jin, J.; Jin, P.
Title An increase in nighttime light detected for protected areas in mainland China based on VIIRS DNB data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 107 Issue Pages (down) 105615
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Protected areas, a globally accepted conservation strategy, play a fundamental role in biodiversity and species conservation. There are increasing concerns about the ecological influence of nighttime light within protected areas due to the emergence of more light-related ecological issues. Previous approaches for detecting nighttime light mainly used the traditional data source released by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), but its coarse spatial resolution and limited radiometric resolution dramatically hamper prompt detection. In this study, we used data from a new source, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Day-Night Band (VIIRS DNB) to detect nighttime light disturbance within protected areas of mainland China. Protected areas extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (OLI-TIRS) images served as ground truths to assess detection accuracy. We found that the VIIRS DNB data provided more and better details compared with the traditional DMSP/OLS data. Pixel-based trend analysis clearly indicated that within the protected areas lighted pixels existed extensively and increased significantly from 2012 to 2017. This study provides a new solution to better understand human activities within protected areas.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2612
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Author Bará, S.; Ribas, S.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Modal evaluation of the anthropogenic night sky brightness at arbitrary distances from a light source Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Optics Abbreviated Journal J. of Optics
Volume 17 Issue Pages (down) 105607
Keywords Skyglow; light propagation, atmospheric optics, light pollution
Abstract The artificial emissions of light contribute to a high extent to the observed brightness of the night sky in many places of the world. Determining the all-sky radiance of anthropogenic origin requires solving the radiative transfer equation for ground-level light sources, generally resorting to a double-scattering approximation in order to account for the observed radiance patterns with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Since the all-sky radiance distribution produced by an elementary light source depends on the distance to the observer in a way that is not immediately obvious, the contributions of sources located at different distances have to be computed on an individual basis, solving for each one the corresponding scattering integrals. In this paper we show that these calculations may be significantly alleviated by using a modal approach, whereby the hemispheric night-sky radiance is expanded in terms of a convenient basis of two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal functions. Since the modal coefficients of this expansion do vary smoothly with the distance to the observer, the all-sky brightness distributions produced by light sources located at arbitrary intermediate distances can be efficiently estimated by interpolation, provided that the coefficients at a discrete set of distances are accurately determined beforehand.
Address Area de Optica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Campus Sur, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IOP Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2040-8986 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1235
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Author Zhang, W.; Jiang, L.; Cui, Y.; Xu, Y.; Wang, C.; Yu, J.; Streets, D.G.; Lin, B.
Title Effects of urbanization on airport CO2 emissions: A geographically weighted approach using nighttime light data in China Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Resources, Conservation and Recycling Abbreviated Journal Resources, Conservation and Recycling
Volume 150 Issue Pages (down) 104454
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Regional disparities in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from airports at the city level are of increasing importance for low-carbon development of the civil aviation sector. However, CO2 emissions from airport operations have rarely been estimated and discussed. We investigate the main driving forces of airport CO2 emissions by using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models, separately, to investigate whether urbanization drives airport CO2 emissions and to investigate spatial heterogeneity at the city level. Nighttime light (NTL) data from satellite observations are adopted as a proxy for urbanization. We obtained energy consumption data by end-use purpose for 70 airports in China and calculated the CO2 emissions from on-ground airport operations. The median CO2 emissions of the 70 sample airports are estimated to be 15.9 million tonnes for 2015. Results from the GWR model indicate that airport CO2 emissions are affected by five main factors: urbanization, foreign direct investment, the share of tertiary industry in gross domestic output, passenger turnover of civil aviation and passenger turnover of railways. The elasticity of urbanization shows an increasing trend from the east of China to the west. The spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emissions of the five airport clusters that are located in five urban agglomerations is discussed. In order to achieve effective reductions of CO2 emissions from airports, policy-makers should consider the spatial heterogeneity of the major driving factors of carbon emissions in different regions to avoid carbon lock-in.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-3449 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2657
Permanent link to this record