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Author Walker, C.E.; Pompea, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of SPIE Eco-Photonics 2011, Strasbourg, France, March 2011. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8065 Issue Pages (down) 80650Q-1  
  Keywords Skyglow; Illumination engineering; Pollution; Schools and universities; Observatories; Astronomy; Eye  
  Abstract About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 547  
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Author Le Tallec, T.; Perret, M.; Théry, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages (down) e79250  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 380  
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Author Nordt, A.; Klenke, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages (down) e71476  
  Keywords Animals; Automobiles; Cities; Ecosystem; Germany; Humans; Light; Male; Noise; Photoperiod; Sleep; Songbirds/*physiology; Urban Population; *Vocalization, Animal; dawn chorus; morning chorus  
  Abstract Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.  
  Address Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Conservation Biology, Leipzig, Germany. anja.nordt@ufz.de  
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  Notes PMID:23940759; PMCID:PMC3737108 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 43  
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Author Elvidge, C.; Pettit, D.; Imhoff, M.; Nemani, R.; Pack, D.; Cinzano, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Observational considerations for moderate resolution nighttime lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication In Optical Engineering+ Applications Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) 70810V–70810V  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract A concept has been developed for a satellite sensor system capable of global observation of the location, extent and brightness of night-time lights at a spatial resolution suitable for the delineation of primary features within human settlements. Nightsat should be capable of producing a complete cloud-free global map of lights on an annual basis. We have used a combination field spectra of outdoor lighting, moderate resolution color photography of cities at night from the International Space Station, and high-resolution airborne camera imagery acquired at night to define a range of spatial, spectral, and detection limit options for a future Nightsat mission. Primary findings of our study are that Nightsat should collect data from a near-synchronous orbit in the mid-evening with 50 to 100 m spatial resolution, detection limits in the range of 10-8 watts/cm2/sr/um, and a capacity for in-flight radiometric calibration. Although panchromatic low-light imaging data would be useful, multispectral low-light imaging data would provide valuable information on the type or character of lighting; potentially stronger predictors of variables, such as ambient population density and economic activity. The Nightsat mission concept is unique in its focus on observing a human activity, in contrast to traditional Earth observing systems that focus on natural systems.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 934  
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Author Rockhill, A.P.; DePerno, C.S.; Powell, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages (down) e69213  
  Keywords Animals; Female; *Lighting; Lynx/*physiology; Male; Moon; Movement/*physiology; North Carolina; Time Factors; Wetlands  
  Abstract Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 – <50%, 50 – <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.  
  Address Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. aimee_rockhill@ncsu.edu  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23861963; PMCID:PMC3704646 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 84  
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