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Author Kolkert, H.; Smith, R.; Rader, R.; Reid, N.
Title Insectivorous bats foraging in cotton crop interiors is driven by moon illumination and insect abundance, but diversity benefits from woody vegetation cover Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Abbreviated Journal Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Volume 302 Issue Pages (down) 107068
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract Landscape and biophysical determinants of insectivorous bat activity and community composition in space and time are central to understanding how growers can maximise bat-mediated pest control services in crops. We measured community composition, abundance, richness and foraging attempts of insectivorous bats in the centre of dryland cotton crops using acoustic sampling. We examined how bat activity was related to woody vegetation in the surrounding landscape, prey insect abundance, distance to crop edge, size of field, proximity to waterbodies and moon illumination to better understand insectivorous bat diversity and foraging in crop interiors. We collected a total of 9467 acoustic files including 1198 foraging attempts (feeding buzzes) of at least 21 insectivorous bat species. The bat assemblage in cotton crop interiors (richness and diversity) was positively related to woody vegetation foliage cover within 5–10 km of the crop, as well as Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera abundance, but was negatively related to distance from the field edge into the crop and moon illumination. Increased feeding attempts were linked to increased Lepidoptera and Hemiptera on nights of high moon illumination (> 75 %). Bat activity and foraging was also higher during nights of increased insect abundance, particularly Lepidoptera, indicating that bats track food resources. Our results highlight the importance of managing bat roosting habitat at different landscape scales to enhance bat diversity and foraging in crop interiors and thus insect consumption. Given the high bat feeding activity on nights of high moon illumination and increased Hemiptera abundance, the timing of insecticide sprays to target pests, such as Hemipteran sucking bugs, could be scheduled on nights of low moon illumination. Such information is useful in identifying conservation priorities for the management of bats in intensively farmed agroecosystems and should facilitate habitat management by growers to maximise crop pest protection services in crop interiors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0167-8809 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3045
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Author Lamphar, H.
Title Spatio-temporal association of light pollution and urban sprawl using remote sensing imagery and GIS: A simple method based in Otsu's algorithm Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 251 Issue Pages (down) 107060
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Automatic thresholding methods are used to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land subject to different natural and anthropogenic processes. Image segmentation plays an important role in this analysis, where urban sprawl detection take place with daylight images. However, recently some investigators have used nocturnal images in remote sensing imagery research. Such georeferenced data represent a good tool for analysis of the light pollution and urban sprawl. There are various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of the light projected from the cities. Though, with a correct method based on background subtraction, any satellite remotely sensed nocturnal image can be useful in detecting urban sprawl. We base this work on thresholding processes of georeferenced nocturnal satellite images. We used a method combining digital classification techniques, geographic information systems and statistical analyzes. The proposed method is helpful because of a simple implementation and time saving. The pixel intensity of nocturnal images can offer a tool to calculate aspects related to electricity consumption and the efficiency of public lighting. We hope the results motivates other authors to study relationships with other social, natural and economic issues.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2990
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.
Title Toward an atlas of the number of visible stars Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume in press Issue Pages (down) 107059
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Modelling techniques for the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere allow the computation of maps of artificial night sky brightness in any direction of the sky, involving a large number of details from satellite data. Cinzano et al. (2001a) introduced a method of mapping naked eye star visibility at the zenith from large areas based on satellite radiance measurements and Garstang models of the propagation of light pollution. It takes into account the altitude of each land area from digital elevation data, natural sky brightness in the chosen sky direction based on the Garstang approach, eye capability after Garstang and Schaefer, and atmospheric extinction in the visual photometric band. Here we discuss how to use these methods to obtain maps of the average number of visible stars when looking at the night sky hemisphere, finally answering, site by site, the question of how many stars are visible in the sky. This is not trivial, as the number of stars visible depends on the limiting magnitude in each direction in the sky, and this depends on sky brightness in that direction, atmospheric extinction at that zenith distance and the observer's visual acuity and experience. We present, as an example, a map of the number of visible stars in Italy to an average observer on clear nights with a resolution of approximately 1 km.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2928
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.
Title Multi-wavelength radiometry of aerosols designed for more accurate night sky brightness predictions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 250 Issue Pages (down) 106998
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract Scattering by aerosols and gases cause a certain fraction of artificial light emitted upwards is redirected to the ground. Of all atmospheric constituents just the aerosols are most important modulators of night-sky brightness under cloudless conditions. Unlike most of the previous we highlight a crucial role of solar radiometry for determining the atmospheric optical depth before night-time observation is to be made. Aerosol optical depth at visible wavelengths extracted from the data measured provides then the information on size distribution or mean refractive index of aerosol particles that in turn are both necessary to make night sky brightness prediction more accurate. Therefore, combining daytime and night-time radiometry we can achieve accuracy much higher than ever before. This is due to significantly reduced uncertainty in aerosol properties.

The aerosol data are retrieved from a new portable multi-wavelength optical analyzer that operates Ocean Optics spectrometer. The equipment provides the radiance data from 350 nm to 1000 nm with spectral resolution of 1 nm. Due to high sun radiance levels we use a system of mirrors each reducing the signal to about 4%, while keeping the integration time short. The minimum integration time of 3 ms allows for detection of direct sunlight. The system developed is sensitive to small changes in the aerosol system, while showing a good detection limit even under low turbidity conditions. The system performance is demonstrated in field experiment conducted shortly after front passage when most of aerosol particles is effectively removed by rain.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2906
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Author Linares, H.; Masana, E.; Ribas, S.J.; Aubé, M.; Simoneau, A.; Bará, S.
Title Night sky brightness simulation over Montsec protected area Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 249 Issue Pages (down) 106990
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Night sky brightness over Montsec Observatory (north-east of Spain) has been computed and checked against measurements using Illumina numerical model [2]. In a previous publication [20] the methodology was validated and light pollution received in the observatory coming from a unique city was computed. Here we present a simulation that includes all the sources that has a significant impact over the quality of the night sky in this area. The decision of which sources should be included in the simulations was taken following the methodology explained by [6]: using a point spread function (PSF) as a simple approach to estimate which sources are brightening the sky dome over the observer. An ad hoc PSF derived with Illumina was used with the purpose of avoiding to have to rely on already existing empirical PSF. The resulting PSF can be used in any location with similar atmospheric conditions. Differences in the spectrum of the lamps can be accounted easily by adjusting a spectrum scale factor. Illumina simulates the artificial sky brightness received (W/sr/m2) by an observer from any direction. Adding the natural sky brightness allows to compare the simulations to measurements taken with different instrumentation. In our case simulations were checked against ASTMON, SQC and SQM measurements. They show a good agreement both in absolute values and in geographical patterns for the three filters studied, B, V and R. The methodology presented opens many possibilities, such as increasing the reliability of the maps that point out the light pollution main contributors for any location, and reducing the amount of time needed to perform an accurate simulation of the night sky brightness.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2923
Permanent link to this record