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Author Gaughan, A. E., Oda, T., Sorichetta, A., Stevens, F. R., Bondarenko, M., Bun, R., Krauser, L., Yetman, G., & Nghiem, S. V.
Title Evaluating nighttime lights and population distribution as proxies for mapping anthropogenic CO2 emission in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Research Communications Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue 9 Pages (down) 091006
Keywords Remote Sensing; greenhouse gas emissions; GHG; Asia; Vietnam; Cambodia; Laos; nighttime light
Abstract Tracking spatiotemporal changes in GHG emissions is key to successful implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). And while emission inventories often provide a robust tool to track emission trends at the country level, subnational emission estimates are often not reported or reports vary in robustness as the estimates are often dependent on the spatial modeling approach and ancillary data used to disaggregate the emission inventories. Assessing the errors and uncertainties of the subnational emission estimates is fundamentally challenging due to the lack of physical measurements at the subnational level. To begin addressing the current performance of modeled gridded CO2 emissions, this study compares two common proxies used to disaggregate CO2 emission estimates. We use a known gridded CO2 model based on satellite-observed nighttime light (NTL) data (Open Source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, ODIAC) and a gridded population dataset driven by a set of ancillary geospatial data. We examine the association at multiple spatial scales of these two datasets for three countries in Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos and characterize the spatiotemporal similarities and differences for 2000, 2005, and 2010. We specifically highlight areas of potential uncertainty in the ODIAC model, which relies on the single use of NTL data for disaggregation of the non-point emissions estimates. Results show, over time, how a NTL-based emissions disaggregation tends to concentrate CO2 estimates in different ways than population-based estimates at the subnational level. We discuss important considerations in the disconnect between the two modeled datasets and argue that the spatial differences between data products can be useful to identify areas affected by the errors and uncertainties associated with the NTL-based downscaling in a region with uneven urbanization rates.
Address University of Louisville, Department of Geography and Geosciences, Louisville, KY, United States of America; ae.gaughan(at)louisville.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IOP Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2727
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Author Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Faraz, M.; Laalpour, S.; Kaveh Ahangar, A.; Eslami, J.; Zarei, S.; Mortazavi, G.; Gheisari, F.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.
Title Exposure to Blue Light Emitted from Smartphones in an Environment with Dim Light at Night Alters the Reaction Time of University Students Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Shiraz E-Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Shiraz E-Med J
Volume Issue Pages (down) e88230
Keywords Human Health; Blue light; smartphone; Reaction Time; shift work
Abstract Background: Substantial evidence now indicates that exposure to visible light at night can be linked to a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from obesity to cancer. More specifically, it has been shown that exposure to short wavelengths in the blue region at night is associated with adverse health effects, such as sleep problems.

Objectives: This study aimed at investigating if exposure to blue light emitted from common smartphones in an environment with dim light at night alters human reaction time.

Methods: Visual reaction time (VRT) of 267 male and female university students were recorded using a simple blind computer-assisted VRT test, respectively. Volunteer university students, who provided their informed consent were randomly divided to two groups of control (N = 126 students) and intervention (N = 141 students). All participants were asked to go to bed at 23:00. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use their smartphones from 23:00 to 24:00 (watching a natural life documentary movie for 60 minutes), while the control group only stayed in bed under low lighting condition, i.e. dim light. Before starting the experiment and after 60 minutes of smartphone use, reaction time was recorded in both groups.

Results: The mean reaction times in the intervention and the control groups before the experiment (23:00) did not show a statistically difference (P = 0.449). The reaction time in the intervention group significantly increased from 412.64 ± 105.60 msec at 23:00 to 441.66 ± 125.78 msec at 24:00 (P = 0.0368) while in the control group, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean reaction times at 23:00 and 24:00.

Conclusions: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study, which showed that exposure to blue-rich visible light emitted from widely used smartphones increases visual reaction time, which would eventually result in a delay in human responses to different hazards. These findings indicate that people, such as night shift or on call workers, who need to react to stresses rapidly should avoid using their smartphones in a dim light at night.
Address Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1735-1391 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2534
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Author James, P.; Bertrand, K.A.; Hart, J.E.; Schernhammer, E.S.; Tamimi, R.M.; Laden, F.
Title Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses' Health Study II Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 125 Issue 8 Pages (down) 087010
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort. METHODS: We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination at approximately 1 km(2) scale for each residence during follow-up. Incident invasive breast cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for anthropometric, reproductive, lifestyle, and socioeconomic risk factors. RESULTS: Over 2,187,425 person-years, we identified 3,549 incident breast cancer cases. Based on a fully adjusted model, the estimated HR for incident breast cancer with an interquartile range (IQR) (31.6 nW/cm(2)/sr) increase in cumulative average outdoor LAN was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.11). An association between LAN and breast cancer appeared to be limited to women who were premenopausal at the time of a case [HR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) based on 1,973 cases vs. HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.09) based on 1,172 cases in postmenopausal women; p-interaction=0.08]. The LAN-breast cancer association was observed only in past and current smokers at the end of follow-up [HR=1.00 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.07) based on 2,215 cases in never smokers; HR=1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) based on 1,034 cases in past smokers vs. HR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37) for 300 cases in current smokers; p-interaction=0.08]. CONCLUSIONS: Although further work is required to confirm our results and to clarify potential mechanisms, our findings suggest that exposure to residential outdoor light at night may contribute to invasive breast cancer risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP935.
Address Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28886600; PMCID:PMC5783660 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1886
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Quetting, M.; Partecke, J.
Title Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 12 Pages (down) e85069
Keywords Turdus merula; European blackbird; birds; animals; Reproduction
Abstract Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany ; Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24376865; PMCID:PMC3869906 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 49
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Author Walker, C.E.; Pompea, S.M.
Title National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of SPIE Eco-Photonics 2011, Strasbourg, France, March 2011. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8065 Issue Pages (down) 80650Q-1
Keywords Skyglow; Illumination engineering; Pollution; Schools and universities; Observatories; Astronomy; Eye
Abstract About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 547
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