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Author Fobert, E.K.; Burke da Silva, K.; Swearer, S.E.
Title Artificial light at night causes reproductive failure in clownfish Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.
Volume 15 Issue 7 Pages (down) 20190272
Keywords Animals
Abstract The Earth is getting brighter at night, as artificial light at night (ALAN) continues to increase and extend its reach. Despite recent recognition of the damaging impacts of ALAN on terrestrial ecosystems, research on ALAN in marine systems is comparatively lacking. To further our understanding of the impacts of ALAN on marine organisms, this study examines how the reproductive fitness of the common clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris is influenced by the presence of ALAN. We assessed how exposure to low levels of ALAN affects (i) frequency of spawning, (ii) egg fertilization success, and (iii) hatching success of A. ocellaris under control (12 : 12 day–night) and treatment (12 : 12 day–ALAN) light regimes. While we found exposure to ALAN had no impact on the frequency of spawning or fertilization success, ALAN had dramatic effects on hatching. Amphiprion ocellaris eggs incubated in the presence of ALAN simply did not hatch, resulting in zero survivorship of offspring. These findings suggest ALAN can significantly reduce reproductive fitness in a benthic-spawning reef fish. Further research in this field is necessary to fully understand the extent of this impact on population and community dynamics in the wild.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2562
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Author Kernbach, M.E.; Newhouse, D.J.; Miller, J.M.; Hall, R.J.; Gibbons, J.; Oberstaller, J.; Selechnik, D.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Unnasch, T.R.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Martin, L.B.
Title Light pollution increases West Nile virus competence of a ubiquitous passerine reservoir species Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 286 Issue 1907 Pages (down) 20191051
Keywords Animals; Human Health; anthropogenic; ecoimmunology; host competence; light pollution; reservoir host
Abstract Among the many anthropogenic changes that impact humans and wildlife, one of the most pervasive but least understood is light pollution. Although detrimental physiological and behavioural effects resulting from exposure to light at night are widely appreciated, the impacts of light pollution on infectious disease risk have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that artificial light at night (ALAN) extends the infectious-to-vector period of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban-dwelling avian reservoir host of West Nile virus (WNV). Sparrows exposed to ALAN maintained transmissible viral titres for 2 days longer than controls but did not experience greater WNV-induced mortality during this window. Transcriptionally, ALAN altered the expression of gene regulatory networks including key hubs (OASL, PLBD1 and TRAP1) and effector genes known to affect WNV dissemination (SOCS). Despite mounting anti-viral immune responses earlier, transcriptomic signatures indicated that ALAN-exposed individuals probably experienced pathogen-induced damage and immunopathology, potentially due to evasion of immune effectors. A simple mathematical modelling exercise indicated that ALAN-induced increases of host infectious-to-vector period could increase WNV outbreak potential by approximately 41%. ALAN probably affects other host and vector traits relevant to transmission, and additional research is needed to advise the management of zoonotic diseases in light-polluted areas.
Address Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31337318; PMCID:PMC6661335 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2611
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Author Hyari, K.H.; Khelifi, A.; Katkhuda, H.
Title Multiobjective Optimization of Roadway Lighting Projects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Transportation Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Transp. Eng.
Volume Issue Pages (down) 04016024
Keywords Lighting; multiobjective optimization; traffic safety; road safety; lighting design; uniformity; genetic algorithm
Abstract Roadway lighting systems play a major role in maintaining nighttime traffic safety as they reduce both the number and severity of nighttime traffic accidents. While the design of roadway lighting systems involves multiple objectives, past studies have focused on optimizing only one of the multiple objectives that should be considered. This paper presents a multiobjective optimization model for roadway lighting projects that simultaneously optimizes four design objectives. The incorporated objectives are (1) maximizing the average lighting level on the road surface; (2) maximizing the lighting uniformity along the roadway; (3) minimizing the glare to road users produced by the lighting system; and (4) minimizing the cost of operating the lighting system. The model is designed and developed as a multiobjective genetic algorithm to help decision-makers in their endeavor to provide efficient roadway lighting systems that strike a balance between the four conflicting objectives. The present model considers the following six design variables: type of lighting fixture, mounting height, spacing, fixture offset, fixture’s inclination, and fixture’s rotation angle. An application example is analyzed in this paper to clarify the use of the model and display its significant features in producing better lighting arrangements for roadways.
Address Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hashemite Univ., P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan; hyari(at)hu.edu.jo
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ASCE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0733-947X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1405
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Author Kaplan, K.A.; Mashash, M.; Williams, R.; Batchelder, H.; Starr-Glass, L.; Zeitzer, J.M.
Title Effect of Light Flashes vs Sham Therapy During Sleep With Adjunct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sleep Quality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication JAMA Network Open Abbreviated Journal JAMA Netw Open
Volume 2 Issue 9 Pages (down) e1911944
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Importance: Owing to biological, behavioral, and societal factors, sleep duration in teenagers is often severely truncated, leading to pervasive sleep deprivation. Objective: To determine whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), would increase total sleep time in teenagers by enabling them to go to sleep earlier than usual. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, conducted between November 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, among 102 adolescents enrolled full-time in grades 9 to 12, who expressed difficulty going to bed earlier and waking up early enough, was composed of 2 phases. In phase 1, participants were assigned to receive either 3 weeks of light or sham therapy and were asked to try to go to sleep earlier. In phase 2, participants received 4 brief CBT sessions in addition to a modified light or sham therapy. All analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Interventions: Light therapy consisted of receiving a 3-millisecond light flash every 20 seconds during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or final 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Sham therapy used an identical device, but delivered 1 minute of light pulses (appearing in 20-second intervals, for a total of 3 pulses) per hour during the final 3 hours of sleep (phase 1) or 2 hours of sleep (phase 2). Light therapy occurred every night during the 4-week intervention. Cognitive behavioral therapy consisted of four 50-minute in-person sessions once per week. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures included diary-based sleep times, momentary ratings of evening sleepiness, and subjective measures of sleepiness and sleep quality. Results: Among the 102 participants (54 female [52.9%]; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years), 72 were enrolled in phase 1 and 30 were enrolled in phase 2. Mixed-effects models revealed that light therapy alone was inadequate in changing the timing of sleep. However, compared with sham therapy plus CBT alone, light therapy plus CBT significantly moved sleep onset a mean (SD) of 50.1 (27.5) minutes earlier and increased nightly total sleep time by a mean (SD) of 43.3 (35.0) minutes. Light therapy plus CBT also resulted in a 7-fold greater increase in bedtime compliance than that observed among participants receiving sham plus CBT (mean [SD], 2.21 [3.91] vs 0.29 [0.76]), as well as a mean 0.55-point increase in subjective evening sleepiness as compared with a mean 0.48-point decrease in participants receiving sham plus CBT as measured on a 7-point sleepiness scale. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that light exposure during sleep, in combination with a brief, motivation-focused CBT intervention, was able to consistently move bedtimes earlier and increase total sleep time in teenagers. This type of passive light intervention in teenagers may lead to novel therapeutic applications. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01406691.
Address Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2574-3805 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31553469 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2683
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Kuester, T.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Baugh, K.; Jechow, A.; Hölker, F.; Bennie, J.; Elvidge, C.; Gaston, K.; Guanter, L.
Title Artificially lit surface of Earth at night increasing in radiance and extent Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv
Volume 3 Issue 11 Pages (down) e1701528
Keywords Remote Sensing; Suomi NPP; VIIRS; light pollution; *economics
Abstract A central aim of the â??lighting revolutionâ? (the transition to solid-state lighting technology) is decreased energy consumption. This could be undermined by a rebound effect of increased use in response to lowered cost of light. We use the first-ever calibrated satellite radiometer designed for night lights to show that from 2012 to 2016, Earthâ??s artificially lit outdoor area grew by 2.2% per year, with a total radiance growth of 1.8% per year. Continuously lit areas brightened at a rate of 2.2% per year. Large differences in national growth rates were observed, with lighting remaining stable or decreasing in only a few countries. These data are not consistent with global scale energy reductions but rather indicate increased light pollution, with corresponding negative consequences for flora, fauna, and human well-being.
Address GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam 14473, Germany; kyba(at)gfz-potsdam.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1789
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