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Author Li, X.; Ma, R.; Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Liu, S.; He, T.; Zhao, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anisotropic characteristic of artificial light at night – Systematic investigation with VIIRS DNB multi-temporal observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 233 Issue Pages (down) 111357  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation  
  Abstract The released VIIRS DNB nightly images, also known as VIIRS DNB daily nighttime images, provide rich information for time series analysis of global socioeconomic dynamics. Anisotropic characteristic is a possible factor that influences the VIIRS DNB radiance at night and its time series analysis. This study aims to investigate the relationship between viewing angles and VIIRS DNB radiance of Suomi NPP satellite in urban areas. First, twenty-nine points were selected globally to explore the angle variation of Suomi NPP satellite views at night. We found that the variation of the satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) is consistent (e.g. between 0° and 70°) since the range of VZA is fixed depending on the sensor design, and the range of viewing azimuth angle (VAA) increases with the increase of latitude. Second, thirty points in cities of Beijing, Houston, Los Angeles, Moscow, Quito and Sydney, were used to investigate the angle-radiance relationship. We proposed a zenith-radiance quadratic (ZRQ) model and a zenith-azimuth-radiance binary quadratic (ZARBQ) model to quantify the relationship between satellite viewing angles and artificial light radiance, which has been corrected by removing the moonlight and atmospheric impact from VIIRS DNB radiance products. For all the thirty points, the ZRQ and ZARBQ analysis have averaged R2 of 0.50 and 0.53, respectively, which indicates that the viewing angles are important factors influencing the variation of the artificial light radiance, but extending zenith to zenith-azimuth does not much better explain the variation of the observed artificial light. Importantly, based on the data analysis, we can make the hypothesis that building height may affect the relationship between VZA and artificial light, and cold and hot spot effects are clearly found in tall building areas. These findings are potentially useful to reconstruct more stable time series VIIRS DNB images for socioeconomic applications by removing the angular effects.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2621  
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Author Peregrym, M.; Penzesne Konya, E.; Falchi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Very important dark sky areas in Europe and the Caucasus region Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 274 Issue Pages (down) 111167  
  Keywords Conservation; Skyglow; Alan; Caucasus; Europe; Light pollution; Protected areas; Very important dark area  
  Abstract ALAN (artificial light at night) can give, if done adequately, a lot of benefits for human society, but it affects reproduction, navigation, foraging, habitat selection, communication, trophic and social interactions of the biota in the same time. Taking into account dramatic increase in light pollution of the night sky and night environment during the past decades, the creation of refugia where natural habitats are not influenced by ALAN is very important. We selected promising territories without, or with a low impact of, ALAN for the development of a VIDA (Very Important Dark Area) Network in Europe and the Caucasus region. 54 VIDAs within the borders of 30 countries were chosen, located in different biogeographic regions, at different altitudes, and in juxtaposition with protected areas. Special attention has been paid to sea and ocean islands, non-polluted by ALAN, as well as to large parts of European Russia and Kazakhstan where there is still a low level of light pollution. These places might be a basis for the protection of biodiversity from the consequences of ALAN, and they can also serve as key education centers for increasing the awareness of the problem of light pollution of the sky at night. Due to the fact that light propagates far away in the atmosphere, the protection of VIDAs can be obtained only if a strong anti-light pollution action is enforced also in the surrounding areas, at least 100 km from the borders of the VIDAs.  
  Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso (Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute), 36016, Thiene, Italy; Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32791325 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3074  
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Author Clarke, R.B.; Amini, H.; James, P.; von Euler-Chelpin, M.; Jorgensen, J.T.; Mehta, A.; Cole-Hunter, T.; Westendorp, R.; Mortensen, L.H.; Loft, S.; Brandt, J.; Hertel, O.; Ketzel, M.; Backalarz, C.; Andersen, Z.J.; Lim, Y.-H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor light at night and breast cancer incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 194 Issue Pages (down) 110631  
  Keywords Human health; Remote sensing; Breast neoplasms; Environmental exposure; Female; Incidence; Lighting; Middle-aged; Prospective studies; Risk factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the role of melatonin, xenograft experiments, and epidemiological studies suggests that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disturb circadian rhythms, possibly increasing the risk of developing breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and the incidence of breast cancer: overall and subtypes classified by estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status. METHODS: We used data on 16,941 nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort who were followed-up from the cohort baseline in 1993 or 1999 through 2012 in the Danish Cancer Registry for breast cancer incidence and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group for breast cancer ER and PR status. LAN exposure data were obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) available for 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2010 in nW/cm(2)/sr unit, and assigned to the study participants' residence addresses during the follow-up. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between LAN and breast cancer, adjusting for individual characteristics, road traffic noise, and air pollution. RESULTS: Of 16,941 nurses, 745 developed breast cancer in total during 320,289 person-years of follow-up. We found no association between exposure to LAN and overall breast cancer. In the fully adjusted models, HRs for the highest (65.8-446.4 nW/cm(2)/sr) and medium (22.0-65.7 nW/cm(2)/sr) LAN tertiles were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.23) and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.31), respectively, compared to the lowest tertile of LAN exposure (0-21.9 nW/cm(2)/sr). We found a suggestive association between LAN and ER-breast cancer. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study of Danish female nurses suggests weak evidence of the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence.  
  Address Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: younhee.lim@sund.ku.dk  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33345898 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3256  
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Author Bhardwaj, M.; Soanes, K.; Lahoz-Monfort, J.J.; Lumsden, L.F.; van der Ree, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial lighting reduces the effectiveness of wildlife-crossing structures for insectivorous bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management  
  Volume 262 Issue Pages (down) 110313  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract In an attempt to improve cost-effectiveness, it has become increasingly popular to adapt wildlife crossing structures to enable people to also use them for safe passage across roads. However, the required needs of humans and wildlife may conflict, resulting in a structure that does not actually provide the perceived improvement in cost-effectiveness, but instead a reduction in conservation benefits. For example, lighting within crossing structures for human safety at night may reduce use of the structure by nocturnal wildlife, thus contributing to barrier and mortality effects of roads rather than mitigating them.

In this study, we experimentally evaluated the impact of artificial light at night on the rate of use of wildlife crossing structures, specifically underpasses, by ten insectivorous bat species groups in south-eastern Australia. We monitored bat activity before, during and after artificially lighting the underpasses. We found that bats tended to avoided lit underpasses, and only one species consistently showed attraction to the light. Artificial light at night in underpasses hypothetically increases the vulnerability of bats to road-mortality or to the barrier effect of roads. The most likely outcomes of lighting underpasses were 1. an increase in crossing rate above the freeway and a decrease under the underpasses, or 2. a reduction in crossing rate both above freeways and under the underpasses, when structures were lit. Our results corroborate those of studies on terrestrial mammals, and thus we recommend that underpasses intended to facilitate the movement of wildlife across roads should not be lit.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2846  
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Author Rodríguez, A.; Burgan, G.; Dann, P.; Jessop, R.; Negro, J.J.; Chiaradia, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fatal Attraction of Short-Tailed Shearwaters to Artificial Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLOS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLOS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages (down) e110114  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999–2013). We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4–8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive) in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive). While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.  
  Address Animals; light pollution; ecology; shearwater; short-tailed shearwaters; Ardenna tenuirostris; Phillip Island; Australia; mortality; birds  
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  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 678  
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