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Author Pendoley, K.; Kamrowski, R.L.
Title Sea-finding in marine turtle hatchlings: What is an appropriate exclusion zone to limit disruptive impacts of industrial light at night? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal for Nature Conservation Abbreviated Journal Journal for Nature Conservation
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords animals; conservation
Abstract Artificial light is increasingly being recognized as a globally-significant ecological threat, but appropriate management has lagged behind that of other environmental pollutants. Industrial developments associated with the extraction of natural resources generate large amounts of artificial light. Marine turtles are particularly vulnerable to disruption from artificial light, thus effective management of lighting is critical in areas where industrial developments occur close to nesting habitat. Given the complexity of managing lighting in industry, ensuring an adequate lighting exclusion zone between the development and the beach may be the most effective strategy for limiting impacts, yet there appears to have been little focus on clearly delineating a distance which constitutes an ‘adequate’ buffer. Using arena assays, we assessed flatback turtle (Natator depressus) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling sea-finding ability in response to three standard industrial light sources (high pressure sodium (HPSV), metal halide (MH) and fluorescent white (FW)), positioned at distances of 100, 200, 500 and 800 m. Sea-finding in both species was disrupted by all three light types when lights were positioned 200 m or closer, but not when lights were positioned ≥500 m away. However, when shielding the lights so that light glow, but not the luminaire itself, was visible from the arena, the observed sea-finding disruption was considerably reduced. Given that facilities are typically lit by numerous luminaires, our findings demonstrate that future industrial developments should be separated from nearby nesting beaches by a buffer of at least 1.5 km, as previously theorized, with all installed lighting appropriately shaded. Such measures will help minimize lighting impacts on marine turtles as extractive resource operations continue to encroach on nesting beaches around the world.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1617-1381 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1328
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Author Sliney, D.H.
Title What is light? The visible spectrum and beyond Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Eye (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Eye (Lond)
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Human Health; human vision; spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum; visible; *Ultraviolet Rays; light
Abstract In this International Year of Light, it is particularly appropriate to review the historical concept of what is light and the controversies surrounding the extent of the visible spectrum. Today we recognize that light possesses both a wave and particle nature. It is also clear that the limits of visibility really extend from about 310 nm in the ultraviolet (in youth) to about 1100 nm in the near-infrared, but depend very much on the radiance, that is, 'brightness' of the light source. The spectral content of artificial lighting are undergoing very significant changes in our lifetime, and the full biological implications of the spectral content of newer lighting technologies remain to be fully explored.
Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0950-222X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26768917 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1337
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Author Rodríguez Martín, A.; Chiaradia, A.; Wasiak, P.; Renwick, L.; Dann, P.
Title Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 0748730415626010 Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Animals; birds; penguins; attendance; little penguin; Eudyptula minor; Phillip Island; Australia; photobiology; seabirds
Abstract Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night light levels.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; airamrguez(at)ebd.csic.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1345
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Author Addison, D.; Stewart, B.
Title Nighttime Lights Revisited: The Use of Nighttime Lights Data as a Proxy for Economic Variables Type Report
Year 2015 Publication World Bank Group Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Economics; earth observation; satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; NPP-VIIRS; gross domestic product; electric power consumption; capital; population; linear regression; night-time light data; economic monitoring
Abstract The growing availability of free or inexpensive satellite imagery has inspired many researchers to investigate the use of earth observation data for monitoring economic activity around the world. One of the most popular earth observation data sets is the so-called nighttime lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Researchers have found positive correlations between nighttime lights and several economic variables. These correlations are based on data measured in levels, with a cross-section of observations within a single time period across countries or other geographic units. The findings suggest that nighttime lights could be used as a proxy for some economic variables, especially in areas or times where data are weak or unavailable. Yet, logic suggests that nighttime lights cannot serve as a good proxy for monitoring the within-in country growth rates all of these variables. Examples examined this paper include constant price gross domestic product, nonagricultural gross domestic product, manufacturing value

added, and capital stocks, as well as electricity consumption, total population, and urban population. The study finds that the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data are quite noisy and therefore the resulting growth elasticities of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights with respect to most of these socioeconomic variables are low, unstable over time, and generate little explanatory power. The one exception for which Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights could serve as a proxy is electricity consumption, measured in 10-year intervals. It is hoped that improved data from the recently launched Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite will help expand or improve these outcomes. Testing this should be an important next step.
Address DAddison(at)worldbank.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Bank Group Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1363
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Author Garvey, P.M.
Title On-Premise Electronic Message Center (EMC) Lighting Levels Type Report
Year 2015 Publication n/a Abbreviated Journal
Volume n/a Issue n/a Pages (up) n/a
Keywords Regulation; electronic message center; EMC; digital billboard; electronic billboards; signs; illuminated signs; best practices
Abstract If an on-premise electronic message center (EMC) is not set at the appropriate light level for the given ambient brightness (i.e., the level of light around the sign), it will either be too dim, in which case it will not be optimally detectable or legible, or it will be too bright, reducing sign legibility because of overglow or blooming of the sign copy. The goal of this research was to develop appropriate EMC brightness and nighttime lighting level standards through a literature review of existing research and standards and a survey of the EMC industry.
Address Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylania, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher United States Sign Council Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN n/a ISBN n/a Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1388
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