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Author Brainard, G.C.; Hanifin, J.P.; Greeson, J.M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D.
Title Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue Pages 6405-6412
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 ± 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence–response curves (R 2 = 0.81–0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R 2 = 0.91), which identifies 446–477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 529
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Author Provencio, I.; Rodriguez, I.R.; Jiang, G.; Hayes, W.P.; Moreira, E.F.; Rollag, M.D.
Title A Novel Human Opsin in the Inner Retina. Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 600-605
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Here we report the identification of a novel human opsin, melanopsin, that is expressed in cells of the mammalian inner retina. The human melanopsin gene consists of 10 exons and is mapped to chromosome 10q22. This chromosomal localization and gene structure differs significantly from that of other human opsins that typically have four to seven exons. A survey of 26 anatomical sites indicates that, in humans, melanopsin is expressed only in the eye. In situ hybridization histochemistry shows that melanopsin expression is restricted to cells within the ganglion and amacrine cell layers of the primate and murine retinas. Notably, expression is not observed in retinal photoreceptor cells, the opsin-containing cells of the outer retina that initiate vision. The unique inner retinal localization of melanopsin suggests that it is not involved in image formation but rather may mediate nonvisual photoreceptive tasks, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the acute suppression of pineal melatonin. The anatomical distribution of melanopsin-positive retinal cells is similar to the pattern of cells known to project from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, a primary circadian pacemaker.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 530
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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Electric power use and breast cancer: a hypothesis. Type Journal Article
Year 1987 Publication Am J Epidemiol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 125 Issue Pages 556-561
Keywords Human Health
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 533
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Author Birriel, J.J.; Walker, C.E.; Thornsberry, C.R.
Title Analysis of Seven Years of Globe at Night Data. Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers Abbreviated Journal J. AAVSO
Volume 42 Issue 1 Pages 219-228
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The Globe at Night (GaN) project website contains seven years of night-sky brightness data contributed by citizen scientists. We perform a statistical analysis of naked-eye limiting magnitudes (NELMs) and find that over the period from 2006 to 2012 global averages of NELMs have remained essentially constant. Observations in which participants reported both NELM and Unihedron Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements are compared to a theoretical expression relating night sky surface brightness and NELM: the overall agreement between observed and predicted NELM values based on the reported SQM measurements supports the reliability of GaN data.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 535
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Author Duriscoe, D.M.
Title Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model. Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal
Volume 125 Issue 933 Pages 1370-1382
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth’s surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 539
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