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Author Posudin, Y.
Title Measurement of Light Pollution Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters Abbreviated Journal
Volume Chapter 33 Issue Pages
Keywords Bortle scale; digital photography; light pollution; portable spectrophotometer; sky quality meter; SQM
Abstract Digital photography is based on the conversion of light by sensitive matrix (array of electronic photodetectors) to capture the image which is then digitized and stored as a computer file for further processing and printing. The spectral sensitivity of the cameras is in good agreement with the spectrum of action of the photosensitive hormone melatonin. Digital photography can be used to quantify light pollution acting on the physiology of living organisms. The chapter discusses the principles of spectrophotometry. A portable spectrophotometer for the measurement of light pollution is proposed by Cinzano. It consists of a cooled CCD camera and a small spectrographic head which is equipped with a De Amici prism composed of two external crown prisms and an inner Flint prism. Sky quality meter (SQM) is a portable photometer for measuring sky brightness and for light pollution monitoring. This device collects the light from a wide solid angle.
Address Department of Physics, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences, Ukraine
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Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 359
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Author Loveridge, A.; Duell, R.; Abbari, J.; Moffatt, M.
Title Night Landscapes: A Challenge to World Heritage Protocols Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Landscape Review Abbreviated Journal Landscape Rev.
Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 64-75
Keywords land management; starlight reserve; dark sky reserve; International Dark Sky Association; world heritage; landscape; parks
Abstract Starlight reserves are a relatively new concept whose definition and management protocols have come about in an era when understandings of human relationships with nature are dynamic and infused with cultural meaning. Rather than assuming that pristine nature can be sealed off from human influences, World Heritage guidelines now accept that our experience of nature may be enriched by attention to the multifunctional landscape, in which a blend of aesthetic, historical, cultural, scientific and environmental elements are carefully presented to tourists. Observatories and clear night skies are ideal sites for such an interface, and the loss of dark skies has led to new systems of audit aimed at their preservation. This

study of the potential for a World Heritage Site in the Mackenzie Basin, in the South Island of New Zealand, grounds the interaction between World Heritage goals and management of land use in a place where exceptional sky quality and competing land uses challenge multiple stakeholders to rethink their concepts of landscape
Address Department of Sociology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, Aotearoa New Zealand.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 360
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Author Ji, L.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, X.; Yu, Y.; Shen, L.; Wang, L.
Title Harmful effects on organism induced by light of different wavelength and power Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Optik Abbreviated Journal Optik
Volume 125 Issue 19 Pages 5808-5812
Keywords LED; Wavelength; Power; Microvessel; Absorption spectrum
Abstract Although a variety of experiments on light exposure stress to animals significantly affect the retina and circulation system, it is still unknown the relationship between the different extent of harmful effect on organism and light with different wavelengths and power. This study is aimed to investigate the changes to microblood vessel and the variations in serum absorption spectrum. LED light of different wavelength and power were used. The results show that power has a relatively larger impact on physiological indexes than wavelength. The extents of these variations are relatively different according to the regression equations. All of these stimulations cause damage to mice physiological conditions, producing some extent of light pollution. The research findings supply the guideline for the effective prevention of the harmful effect on organism by light pollution from the view of science of optical life science.
Address College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, People's Republic of China
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 362
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Author Mace, B.L.; McDaniel, J.
Title Visitor Evaluation of Night Sky Interpretation in Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Interpretation Research Abbreviated Journal J. of Interp. Res.
Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 39-57
Keywords parks; interpretation; social studies; Bryce Canyon National Park; Cedar Breaks National Monument; dark skies
Abstract Natural lightscapes are an important resource for parks and protected areas, including Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument. Both locations offer night sky interpretive programs, attracting over 27,000 visitors annually, equaling all other interpretive programs combined. Parks need to understand what drives visitor interest and park managers need to assess if night sky interpretation is meeting expectations. A total of 1,179 night and day visitors to Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument served as participants and completed a 36-item survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, benefits, and behaviors related to the night sky. Results show those who attended a night sky interpretive program gained a significant amount of knowledge about night sky issues. Both day and night visitors have strongly held attitudes about light pollution and the protection of the night sky in national parks.
Address Department of Psychology, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT 84720 USA
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 374
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Author Warrant, E.; Oskarsson, M.; Malm, H.
Title The Remarkable Visual Abilities of Nocturnal Insects: Neural Principles and Bioinspired Night-Vision Algorithms Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the IEEE Abbreviated Journal
Volume 102 Issue 10 Pages 1411 - 1426
Keywords Animals; Vision
Abstract Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have remarkable visual abilities. Recent work – particularly on fast-flying moths and bees and on ball-rolling dung beetles – has shown that nocturnal insects are able to distinguish colors, to detect faint movements, to learn visual landmarks, to orient to the faint pattern of polarized light produced by the moon, and to navigate using the stars. These impressive visual abilities are the result of exquisitely adapted eyes and visual systems, the product of millions of years of evolution. Even though we are only at the threshold of understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for reliable nocturnal vision, growing evidence suggests that the neural summation of photons in space and time is critically important: even though vision in dim light becomes necessarily coarser and slower, those details that are preserved are seen clearly. These benefits of spatio-temporal summation have obvious implications for dim-light video technologies. In addition to reviewing the visual adaptations of nocturnal insects, we here describe an algorithm inspired by nocturnal visual processing strategies – from amplification of primary image signals to optimized spatio-temporal summation to reduce noise – that dramatically increases the reliability of video collected in dim light, including the preservation of color.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 376
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