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Author Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D.
Title A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446
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Author Pantoni, R.; Fonseca, C.; Brandão, D.
Title Street Lighting System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chapter 16 in Energy Efficiency – The Innovative Ways for Smart Energy, the Future Towards Modern Utilities, M Eissa ed. Abbreviated Journal
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Keywords Lighting Systems
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 447
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Author Marchant, P.R.
Title Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 104 Pages 39-48
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract Crime counts published by the Home Office for the Metropolitan Police

Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership areas have been collated

across the years 2003-2009. The crime counts over time have been

modelled taking into account the ‘multilevel’ (years within areas)

nature of the data. The key variable of interest, as a predictor of

within-area change of crime, is the proportion of a Core Investment

Period of new Private Finance Initiative street lighting which had been

completed up to the given time point as a predictor of within area

change of crime. The final model gave a 95% confidence interval for

the multiplier by which the number of crimes is increased of (0.87,

1.11), for a fully implemented lighting programme, consistent with

zero effect.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 449
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Author Marchant, P.R.
Title What is the contribution of street lighting to keeping us safe? An investigation into a policy. Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 102 Pages 32-42
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract Lighting of roads is said to be of benefit beyond giving the ability to be

able to see in the dark. It is claimed for example that lighting reduces

crime and traffic accidents by a considerable amount and it is

therefore necessary to have it for these reasons. My view remains that

this claim lacks evidence of a sufficiently high standard to warrant

using public safety as an argument. On the other hand there are

reasons why having a lot of light at night might be a bad thing. This

work continues a previous talk and article for Radical Statistics

(Marchant 2006)

My initial interest in this area was sparked through my interest in

astronomy because light pollution makes it hard to appreciate the

wonders of the night sky. It seemed to me that the belief that lighting

reduces crime was questionable…. I then embarked on investigating

the crime reduction claim and found it suspect, as detailed in the

2006 Radical Statistics article. (See also Marchant 2004, 2005, 2007,

2009)
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 450
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Author van Osch, T.H.J.
Title Intelligent dynamic road lighting and perceived personal safety of pedestrians Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Eindhoven University of Technology Masters Thesis. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Perception
Abstract The function of road lighting is to prevent crime, provide a sense of perceived

personal safety, as well as the ability to successfully orientate and navigate urban

environments at night. However more and more people realize the negative effects of

abundant street lighting, such as light pollution and energy consumption. In 2001, 63 per cent

of the world population was confronted with night skies brighter than the threshold set for

light pollution by the International Astronomical Union (Chepesiuk, 2009). Exposure to light

pollution over longer periods of time can have lasting negative effects on the health of both

human and wildlife. A second motive for reducing abundant road lighting is sustainable

energy usage. The total energy consumption of public lighting in the Netherlands is currently

estimated to be 600.000 to 700.000 MWh a year, of which about 500.000 MWh is used for

the lighting of infrastructure such as roads, bicycle trials and footpaths (SenterNovem, 2009).

Reducing energy consumption and light pollution by road lighting can be realized using

intelligent dynamic road lighting systems with LED technology. Such intelligent dynamic

road lighting systems can offer light only when and where it is most needed, thereby

preventing light pollution and energy waste. However, such dynamic lighting should not

negatively affect a pedestrian’s perceived personal safety, because fear of crime often elicits a

stress reaction, to avoid, to reduce, or to cope with a threatening situation (Riger, 1985).

Therefore the addressed research question in this report is “What is the influence of different

dynamic road lighting scenarios on perceived personal safety” In particular, where would

pedestrian’s benefit from light the most e.g. at their own location or in their direct

surroundings?

To answer this research question a field study is performed using testbed “de Zaale”

on the campus of the Eindhoven University of Technology. “De Zaale” is normal street

setting equipped with intelligent dynamic road lighting containing twelve lampposts over a

range of 350 metres. A three condition (three different light distributions: darkspot, spotlight,

and a control condition) within-subject experiment was conducted with perceived personal

safety as the dependent variable. These three light scenarios are designed to have opposing

light distributions at the location of the pedestrian, with an equally amount of illumination.

To explain differences measured in perceived personal safety Appleton’s prospect and refuge

theory is used complemented with a social psychological model by van der Wurff and

colleagues (van der Wurff, Staalduinen & Stringer, 1989; Appleton, 1975). The dependant

variable perceived personal safety and the independent variables prospect, concealment,

exposure, escape, attractiveness and power are measured using an equidistant 5-point

answering scale questionnaire.

Considering the results the present study demonstrates that the manner in which light

is distributed across the poles in an intelligent dynamic road lighting setup influences the

perceived personal safety of pedestrians at night. We have shown in an experimental field

study that light has an effect on the proximal cues prospect, exposure, concealment and

escape. Prospect is indicated to be the most important proximal cue influencing a pedestrians

perceived personal safety. The relatively highest level of perceived personal safety is

experienced when a pedestrian’s personal and action space are sufficiently illuminated.

Illuminating these areas increases prospect, exposure an escape, and decreases concealment.

Additional illumination in a pedestrian’s vista space does not necessarily contribute to the

increase of their perceived personal safety. Furthermore individual differences between

pedestrians such as gender and attractiveness can enhance the negative effect of poorillumination on perceived personal safety. This knowledge should be integrated in the future

design of an intelligent dynamic road lighting system in order to maximise the personal safety

of pedestrians using such a system at night.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 451
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