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Author Spoelstra, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New device for monitoring the colors of the night Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue (up) Pages 82-89  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky spectrum; Filters; Monitoring  
  Abstract The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical – especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 185  
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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.; Leung, W.Y.; Wong, C.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue (up) Pages 90-108  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky brightness; Skyglow; Moon radiation; Urban lighting; Hong Kong  
  Abstract Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec−2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 186  
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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evolution of the energy consumed by street lighting in Spain estimated with DMSP-OLS data Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue (up) Pages 109-117  
  Keywords Light pollution; Power consumption; Remote sensing; Light pollution models; Spain  
  Abstract We present the results of the analysis of satellite imagery to study light pollution in Spain. Both calibrated and non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images were used. We describe the method to scale the non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images which allows us to use differential photometry techniques in order to study the evolution of the light pollution. Population data and DMSP-OLS satellite calibrated images for the year 2006 were compared to test the reliability of official statistics in public lighting consumption. We found a relationship between the population and the energy consumption which is valid for several regions. Finally the true evolution of the electricity consumption for street lighting in Spain from 1992 to 2010 was derived; it has been doubled in the last 18 years in most of the provinces.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 187  
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Author Kuechly, H.U.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Lindemann, C.; Wolter, C.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aerial survey and spatial analysis of sources of light pollution in Berlin, Germany Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 126 Issue (up) Pages 39-50  
  Keywords Light pollution; Artificial lighting; Urban analysis; Remote sensing; GIS; Darkness; Spatial analysis; Light at night  
  Abstract Aerial observations of light pollution can fill an important gap between ground based surveys and nighttime satellite data. Terrestrially bound surveys are labor intensive and are generally limited to a small spatial extent, and while existing satellite data cover the whole world, they are limited to coarse resolution. This paper describes the production of a high resolution (1 m) mosaic image of the city of Berlin, Germany at night. The dataset is spatially analyzed to identify the major sources of light pollution in the city based on urban land use data. An area-independent ‘brightness factor’ is introduced that allows direct comparison of the light emission from differently sized land use classes, and the percentage area with values above average brightness is calculated for each class. Using this methodology, lighting associated with streets has been found to be the dominant source of zenith directed light pollution (31.6%), although other land use classes have much higher average brightness. These results are compared with other urban light pollution quantification studies. The minimum resolution required for an analysis of this type is found to be near 10 m. Future applications of high resolution datasets such as this one could include: studies of the efficacy of light pollution mitigation measures, improved light pollution simulations, economic and energy use, the relationship between artificial light and ecological parameters (e.g. circadian rhythm, fitness, mate selection, species distributions, migration barriers and seasonal behavior), or the management of nightscapes. To encourage further scientific inquiry, the mosaic data is freely available at Pangaea: http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.785492.  
  Address Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Space Sciences, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6‐10, 12165 Berlin, Germany  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 188  
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Author Tang, L.; Cheng, H.; Qu, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimating Provincial Economic Development Level of China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Advanced Materials Research Abbreviated Journal Amr  
  Volume 807-809 Issue (up) Pages 1903-1908  
  Keywords Curve Fitting; DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light; Economic Development; Provincial Scale; Regression Analysis; *Economics  
  Abstract How to estimate regional economic development level is important for solving regional inequality problems. Most of previous studies on regional economic development are based on the statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has analyzed the defects of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional economic development problems with 10-year DMSP/OLS nighttime light satellite imagery as a new data source. For exploring the relationship between DMSP/OLS nighttime light data and GDP, different types of curve fitting regression models have been tried, the Cubic model has shown the best performance with a coefficient of determination (R2) equal to 0.803. Based on this positive correlation, we have estimated provincial economic development level of China using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data. The research results have indicated that the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data can well reveal provincial economic development levels.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1662-8985 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 202  
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