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Author Fuller, G. (ed) pdf  openurl
  Title The Night Shift: Lighting and Nocturnal Strepsirrhine Care in Zoos Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords zoos; light at night; circadian disruption; strepsirrhines; primates; lorises; pottos; lighting design  
  Abstract Over billions of years of evolution, light from the sun, moon, and stars has provided

organisms with reliable information about the passage of time. Photic cues entrain

the circadian system, allowing animals to perform behaviors critical for survival and

reproduction at optimal times. Modern artificial lighting has drastically altered

environmental light cues. Evidence is accumulating that exposure to light at night

(particularly blue wavelengths) from computer screens, urban light pollution, or as

an occupational hazard of night-shift work has major implications for human health.

Nocturnal animals are the shift workers of zoos; they are generally housed on

reversed light cycles so that daytime visitors can observe their active behaviors. As a

result, they are exposed to artificial light throughout their subjective night. The goal

of this investigation was to examine critically the care of nocturnal strepsirrhine

primates in North American zoos, focusing on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus spp.) and pottos (Perodicticus potto). The general hypothesis was that exhibit lighting design affects activity patterns and circadian physiology in nocturnal strepsirrhines. The

first specific aim was to assess the status of these populations. A multi-institutional husbandry survey revealed little consensus among zoos in lighting design, with both red and blue light commonly used for nocturnal illumination. A review of medical records also revealed high rates of neonate mortality. The second aim was to

develop methods for measuring the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior and

health. The use of actigraphy for automated activity monitoring was explored.

Methods were also developed for measuring salivary melatonin and cortisol as

indicators of circadian disruption. Finally, a multi-institutional study was conducted

comparing behavioral and endocrine responses to red and blue dark phase lighting.

These results showed greater activity levels in strepsirrhines housed under red light than blue. Salivary melatonin concentrations in pottos suggested that blue light

suppressed nocturnal melatonin production at higher intensities, but evidence for

circadian disruption was equivocal. These results add to the growing body of

evidence on the detrimental effects of blue light at night and are a step towards

empirical recommendations for nocturnal lighting design in zoos.
 
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Fuller, G.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 327  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 4 Issue (up) Pages 3789  
  Keywords remote sensing; light pollution; light at night; DMSP-OLS; satellite; light pollution reduction  
  Abstract Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Links between economic activity, population growth and artificial light are well documented in rapidly developing regions. Applying a novel method to analysis of satellite images of European nighttime lights over 15 years, we show that while the continental trend is towards increasing brightness, some economically developed regions show more complex patterns with large areas decreasing in observed brightness over this period. This highlights that opportunities exist to constrain and even reduce the environmental impact of artificial light pollution while delivering cost and energy-saving benefits.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK TR10 9EZ  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24445659; PMCID:PMC3896907 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 328  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sperber, A.N.; Elmore, A.C.; Crow, M.L.; Cawlfield, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Performance evaluation of energy efficient lighting associated with renewable energy applications Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Renewable Energy Abbreviated Journal Renewable Energy  
  Volume 44 Issue (up) Pages 423-430  
  Keywords Renewable energy; Energy efficiency; Ultra capacitor; Light emitting diodes; Metal halide; LED; LED lighting  
  Abstract Energy efficiency is a primary consideration when designing off-grid renewable energy systems including portable micro-grids. This study focuses on characterizing the potential benefits associated with using energy efficient exterior area lighting commonly associated with remote installations. Light emitting diode (LED) luminaires are becoming more commercially available, and this study compares two LED products designed for exterior lighting to traditional metal halide lamps. The characterization focuses on the use of a diesel generator, battery bank, and a bank of ultra capacitors (UCAPs) to power the lights because these systems are also used to generate or store energy at renewable energy-powered micro-grids. This field-based study quantifies the illuminance provided by each lighting system, diesel consumption rates associated with powering the lights and/or charging the batteries and UCAPs, and the time of operation for each lighting system when powered by a single discharge cycle of the batteries and UCAPs. The energy efficiency benefit of the LED luminaires is offset by their lower illuminance. However, a comparison of lighting standards for specific purposes such as security lighting indicates that LEDs may be appropriate for applications where a metal halide system would provide significantly more illumination than required at a much higher energy cost. For those purposes where higher levels of illuminance are required, the data presented in the paper may be useful in designing a renewable energy-powered micro-grid that uses multiple LED fixtures to illuminate an exterior area that is currently illuminated by a single metal halide light stand.  
  Address Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 129 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop Avenue Rolla, MO 65409, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-1481 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 335  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Luo, Wei (ed) pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Outdoor lighting – Mesopic photometry, adaptation conditions and user preferences in pedestrian way lighting Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The starting point of this work is to review the current recommendations and criteria of road and pedestrian way lighting. At present, the emphasis of traffic safety, the increasing energy costs, and improvements in mesopic photometry have led to new discussions about the accuracy of the recommendations for road lighting. Sufficient road lighting is generally based on the lighting requirements given in different lighting classes.



For road lighting, the value of 2 cd/m2 is recommended as the minimum average road surface luminance for the highest lighting class in the CIE and CEN publications. The basis of the average road surface luminance for the lower lighting classes is unknown and lacks experimental works. Moreover, the experimental set-ups of the studies conducted in the 1930s and 1950s do not meet the conditions of motor traffic lighting nowadays. They also have deficiencies in the number and age distributions of the subjects. The values of the average horizontal illuminances of the pedestrian way lighting recommendations are based on studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s. However, no information exists on how the recommended illuminance values are derived for the different lighting classes.

The current recommendations for outdoor lighting are based on photopic photometry, this is daylight visibility conditions. In outdoor lighting, the luminances are in the mesopic range. The CIE recommended system for mesopic photometry should be used in providing recommendations and criteria for both road and pedestrian way lighting. Before implementing mesopic photometry, the adaptation luminance of the road users should be known. This study examined the adaptation conditions of pedestrians based on eye-tracking measurements. A case study in a pedestrian way was conducted in Chongqing of China. The study is related to the currently ongoing task of the CIE JCT-1 Implementation of CIE 191 System for Mesopic Photometry in Outdoor Lighting, which is to investigate adaptation and viewing conditions and define visual adaptation fields in outdoor lighting. The case study consisted of eye-tracking measurements and subjective evaluations of the lighting conditions.



It was found that the eye-fixation areas and locations were around a central area of the road surface in the horizontal level but spread over a wider area in the vertical level. The subjective importance of facial recognition depends on the specific visual tasks at different light levels in a pedestrian way. The results also suggest that further studies using an eye-tracking system could combine eye-fixation data with pupil size and luminance data. This would help in further analysis of visual adaptation fields of the road users.
 
  Address Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Luo, Wei  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 340  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chaves, I.; Pokorny, R.; Byrdin, M.; Hoang, N.; Ritz, T.; Brettel, K.; Essen, L.-O.; van der Horst, G.T.J.; Batschauer, A.; Ahmad, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The cryptochromes: blue light photoreceptors in plants and animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Annual Review of Plant Biology Abbreviated Journal Annu Rev Plant Biol  
  Volume 62 Issue (up) Pages 335-364  
  Keywords Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism; Animals; Cryptochromes/chemistry/classification/*physiology; DNA Repair; Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase/chemistry/classification/physiology; Homing Behavior; Insects/physiology; *Light Signal Transduction; Magnetics; Mice; Oxidation-Reduction; Phosphorylation/physiology; Plants/*metabolism; blue light  
  Abstract Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, where they play key roles in growth and development. Subsequently identified in prokaryotes, archaea, and many eukaryotes, cryptochromes function in the animal circadian clock and are proposed as magnetoreceptors in migratory birds. Cryptochromes are closely structurally related to photolyases, evolutionarily ancient flavoproteins that catalyze light-dependent DNA repair. Here, we review the structural, photochemical, and molecular properties of cry-DASH, plant, and animal cryptochromes in relation to biological signaling mechanisms and uncover common features that may contribute to better understanding the function of cryptochromes in diverse systems including in man.  
  Address Department of Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. i.chaves@erasmusmc.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1543-5008 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21526969 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 341  
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