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Author Walker, C.E.; Pompea, S.M.
Title National education program for energy efficient illumination engineering Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Proceedings of SPIE Eco-Photonics 2011, Strasbourg, France, March 2011. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8065 Issue (up) Pages 80650Q-1
Keywords Skyglow; Illumination engineering; Pollution; Schools and universities; Observatories; Astronomy; Eye
Abstract About one-third of outdoor lighting escapes unused into the sky, wasting energy and causing sky glow. Because of excessive sky glow around astronomical facilities, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has a strong motivation to lead light pollution education efforts. While our original motivation of preserving the dark skies near observatories is still important, energy conservation is a critical problem that needs to be addressed nationwide. To address this problem we have created an extensive educational program on understanding and measuring light pollution. A set of four learning experiences introduces school students at all grade levels to basic energy-responsive illumination engineering design principles that can minimize light pollution. We created and utilize the GLOBE at Night citizen science light pollution assessment campaign as a cornerstone activity. We also utilize educational activities on light shielding that are introduced through a teaching kit. These two components provide vocabulary, concepts, and visual illustrations of the causes of light pollution. The third, more advanced component is the school outdoor lighting audit, which has students perform an audit and produce a revised master plan for compliant lighting. These learning experiences provide an integrated learning unit that is highly adaptable for U.S. and international education efforts in this area.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 547
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Author So, C.W.
Title Observational Studies of the Night Sky in Hong Kong. Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Master's thesis, The University of Hong Kong. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 550
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Author Aubé, M.
Title Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of Starlight 2007 conference. La Palma, Spain. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Few attempts have been made to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) behaviour

during the night. One such method uses spectrally calibrated stars as reference targets

but the available number of stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where

artificial lighting hide most of these stars. In our research we attempt to provide an

alternate method one which exploits the artificial sky glow generated by light pollution.

To achieve that goal, we designed a new methodology which links a 3D light

pollution model with in situ light pollution spectral measurements obtained with our

detector called Spectrometer for aerosol night detection (SAND). The basic idea was to

adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit the measured artificial sky brightness.

This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting

angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and

in topography along with a detailed definition of the vertical atmospheric profile. This

model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering

as well as aerosol absorption. A correction for sub grid obstacles is also included.

These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models.

Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of

particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present model

and detector features and some of the first results derived from ILLUMINA model. We

will also present our web based spatio-temporal Sky spectral luminance measurements

database project.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 552
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Author Garstang, R.H.
Title Brightness of clouds at night over a city. Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 127 Issue (up) Pages 1-13
Keywords Skyglow
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 553
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Author Aubé, M.; Franchomme-Fossé, L.; Robert-Staehler, P.; Houle, V.
Title Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of SPIE 2005 -- Volume 5890, San Diego, California, USA. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5890 Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow; aerosol optical depth;  remote sensing; light pollution; artificial skyglow
Abstract Tracking the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Until now, the two standard techniques used for retrieving AOD were; (i) sun photometry, and (ii) satellite based approaches, such as based DDV (Dense Dark Vegetation) inversion algorithms. These methods are only available for use during daylight time since they are based on direct or indirect observation of sunlight. Few attempts have been made to measure AOD behaviour at night. One such method uses spectrally ­ calibrated stars as reference targets but the number of available stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where artificial lighting hides most  of these stars. In this research, we  attempt  to provide an alternate method, one  which exploits artificial sky glow or light pollution. This methodology links a 3D light pollution model with in situ light pollution measurements. The basic idea is to adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit measured light pollution. This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and in topography. This model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering, as well as aerosol absorption. These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models. Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present a first sensitive study applied to the ILLUMINA model.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 554
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