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Author Letu, H.; Tana, G.; Hara, M.; Nishio, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring the electric power consumption by lighting from DMSP/OLS nighttime satellite imagery. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 2113-2116  
  Keywords Economics  
  Abstract In this study, we attempted to estimate the electric power consumption using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Operational Linescan System (OLS) stable light imagery after correction for saturation effected. Digital numbers (DNs) of a stable light image are saturated in the center of city areas. Thus, we developed a saturated light correction method for the DMSP/OLS stable light image using the radiance calibration image of DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery. The comparison between the stable light image for 1999 and the radiance calibration image for 1996-1997 in major areas of Japan showed a strong linear correlation (Ysta = 17Xrad 102) between the DNs of both images. Saturated DNs of the stable light image could therefore be corrected based on the correlation equation between the two images. To estimate the electric power consumption, regression analysis was performed between statistic data of electric power consumption from lighting and cumulative DNs of the stable light image before and after correcting for the saturation effects using the new and the conventional methods of the cubic regression equation (CRE). There is a stronger improvement of the determination coefficient with the new saturated light correction method (R =0.91, P=4.5·106<;0.05) than with the conventional method (R2=0.81, P=2.6-106<;0.05) from the initial correlation with the uncorrected data (R2=0.70, P=1.7-106<;0.05).  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 438  
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Author Lockwood, R.; Selwyn, T.; Morgan-Taylor, M. url  openurl
  Title A review of local authority road lighting initiatives aimed at reducing costs, carbon emissions and light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Report to Defra, UK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Economics  
  Abstract This review of local authority road lighting initiatives was commissioned by Defra’s

Statutory Nuisance team in response to one of the recommendations contained in the

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution’s (RCEP) report “Artificial Light in the

Environment”. The RCEP report made reference to road lighting trials being undertaken by

local authorities in the UK that have been reducing or turning road lights off. This report

has been produced following a review of fifteen out of twenty five such initiatives identified

in England and Wales.

The overall aim of the review was to examine the local authority road lighting trials and

initiatives and draw out the lessons learnt.

Local authorities have implemented these initiatives in response to economic pressures

such as rising energy prices and environmental concerns about wasted energy and the

effects of carbon emissions and light pollution. Changes have been made to the way they

deliver public road lighting services by:

&#61599; switching selected road lights off;

&#61599; lighting roads for part of the night only;

&#61599; dimming the level of lighting during the early hours of the morning;

&#61599; reducing the “burning” time of lamps in the evening and early morning; and / or

&#61599; using new and evolving technologies such as a central management system (CMS) or

light emitting diodes (LED).

These initiatives have the potential to provide a range of benefits including substantial

financial savings to local authorities, reduced carbon emissions and reduced light pollution.

However, the benefits need to be considered in the context of the important role that road

lighting plays in terms of assisting traffic safety and helping to reduce crime. Local

authorities have needed to carefully consider the impacts of proposed changes on these

issues and adopt appropriate management strategies prior to, during and post

implementation. These strategies have included the use of measures such as exemption

criteria, risk assessments and active engagement with stakeholders.

From this review, it is evident that there are a range of options and tools available to local

authorities as they consider how best to respond to the growing economic and

environmental pressures on the way they deliver their public road lighting services.

It is hoped that the information contained within this report may inform local authorities

which face similar challenges in the future, in identifying some of the key issues that may

affect their particular public road lighting service and assist in the process of implementing

changes appropriate to their circumstances.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 439  
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Author Zhifeng, L.; Chunyang, H.; Yang, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping urban areas by performing systematic correction for DMSP/OLS Nighttime Lights Time Series in China from 1992 to 2008. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages 1858-1861  
  Keywords Economics  
  Abstract The stable lights data in the Version 4 Nighttime Lights Time Series Dataset gained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Line-scan System can't be used to map urban areas directly because the data has no on board calibration and many unstable lights are also included in the data. So the systematic correction was performed before the urban areas extraction according to the characteristic of stable lights data in China from 1992 to 2008 with the 1 km spatial resolution. It was found that, with systematic correction, the stable lights data could be strictly comparable from one year to the next, in which the remarkable differences of digital number values and the unstable lights were removed effectively. Besides, the urban areas extracted from the stable lights data could be used to describe the real process of urban expansion in China from 1992 to 2008.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 440  
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Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J. url  openurl
  Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue (up) Pages 139-177  
  Keywords Energy; Economics  
  Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 441  
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Author Snyder, J.D.; Bullough, J.D.; Radetsky, L.C. url  openurl
  Title Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication National Technical Information Service report Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Lighting Systems  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 444  
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