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Author Zhou, H.; Hawkins, H.G.; Miles, J.D. url  openurl
  Title Guidelines for Freeway Lighting Curfews Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Technical Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6645-1, Texas A&M Transportation Institute Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages á-72  
  Keywords Lighting Systems; Regulation  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 445  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D. url  openurl
  Title A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Lighting Systems  
  Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pantoni, R.; Fonseca, C.; Brandão, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street Lighting System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chapter 16 in Energy Efficiency – The Innovative Ways for Smart Energy, the Future Towards Modern Utilities, M Eissa ed. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Lighting Systems  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 447  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author van Osch, T.H.J. url  openurl
  Title Intelligent dynamic road lighting and perceived personal safety of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Eindhoven University of Technology Masters Thesis. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Perception  
  Abstract The function of road lighting is to prevent crime, provide a sense of perceived

personal safety, as well as the ability to successfully orientate and navigate urban

environments at night. However more and more people realize the negative effects of

abundant street lighting, such as light pollution and energy consumption. In 2001, 63 per cent

of the world population was confronted with night skies brighter than the threshold set for

light pollution by the International Astronomical Union (Chepesiuk, 2009). Exposure to light

pollution over longer periods of time can have lasting negative effects on the health of both

human and wildlife. A second motive for reducing abundant road lighting is sustainable

energy usage. The total energy consumption of public lighting in the Netherlands is currently

estimated to be 600.000 to 700.000 MWh a year, of which about 500.000 MWh is used for

the lighting of infrastructure such as roads, bicycle trials and footpaths (SenterNovem, 2009).

Reducing energy consumption and light pollution by road lighting can be realized using

intelligent dynamic road lighting systems with LED technology. Such intelligent dynamic

road lighting systems can offer light only when and where it is most needed, thereby

preventing light pollution and energy waste. However, such dynamic lighting should not

negatively affect a pedestrian’s perceived personal safety, because fear of crime often elicits a

stress reaction, to avoid, to reduce, or to cope with a threatening situation (Riger, 1985).

Therefore the addressed research question in this report is “What is the influence of different

dynamic road lighting scenarios on perceived personal safety” In particular, where would

pedestrian’s benefit from light the most e.g. at their own location or in their direct

surroundings?

To answer this research question a field study is performed using testbed “de Zaale”

on the campus of the Eindhoven University of Technology. “De Zaale” is normal street

setting equipped with intelligent dynamic road lighting containing twelve lampposts over a

range of 350 metres. A three condition (three different light distributions: darkspot, spotlight,

and a control condition) within-subject experiment was conducted with perceived personal

safety as the dependent variable. These three light scenarios are designed to have opposing

light distributions at the location of the pedestrian, with an equally amount of illumination.

To explain differences measured in perceived personal safety Appleton’s prospect and refuge

theory is used complemented with a social psychological model by van der Wurff and

colleagues (van der Wurff, Staalduinen & Stringer, 1989; Appleton, 1975). The dependant

variable perceived personal safety and the independent variables prospect, concealment,

exposure, escape, attractiveness and power are measured using an equidistant 5-point

answering scale questionnaire.

Considering the results the present study demonstrates that the manner in which light

is distributed across the poles in an intelligent dynamic road lighting setup influences the

perceived personal safety of pedestrians at night. We have shown in an experimental field

study that light has an effect on the proximal cues prospect, exposure, concealment and

escape. Prospect is indicated to be the most important proximal cue influencing a pedestrians

perceived personal safety. The relatively highest level of perceived personal safety is

experienced when a pedestrian’s personal and action space are sufficiently illuminated.

Illuminating these areas increases prospect, exposure an escape, and decreases concealment.

Additional illumination in a pedestrian’s vista space does not necessarily contribute to the

increase of their perceived personal safety. Furthermore individual differences between

pedestrians such as gender and attractiveness can enhance the negative effect of poorillumination on perceived personal safety. This knowledge should be integrated in the future

design of an intelligent dynamic road lighting system in order to maximise the personal safety

of pedestrians using such a system at night.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 451  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452  
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