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Author Stockl, A.L.; Ribi, W.A.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication The Journal of Comparative Neurology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Neurol
Volume 524 Issue 1 Pages 160–175
Keywords (down) vision, animals
Abstract Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths having considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology – the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. Interestingly, the overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 22362, Lund, Sweden
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ISSN 0021-9967 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26100612 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1190
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Author Schaefer, B.E.
Title Astronomy and the limits of vision Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication Vistas in Astronomy Abbreviated Journal Vistas in Astronomy
Volume 36 Issue Pages 311-361
Keywords (down) Vision
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ISSN 0083-6656 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1218
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Author Ahn, J.; Ahn, S.-E.; Yang, K.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Oh, J.
Title Effects of a high level of illumination before sleep at night on chorioretinal thickness and ocular biometry Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res
Volume 164 Issue Pages 157-167
Keywords (down) Vision
Abstract The choroid is affected by many factors. One of the factors, change in illumination has been suggested to influence choroidal thickness. However, the effects of bright light before sleep at night on the human eye are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high level of illumination in the evening on ocular measurements. Twenty-seven men with myopia spent seven consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. During the first two nights, subjects were exposed to light at 150 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Then, for five consecutive nights, they were exposed to ambient light at 1000 lux between 20:00 and midnight. Ocular parameters and their diurnal variations were compared between the two periods and the effects of a high level of illumination were analyzed. After subjects were exposed to 1000 lux of illumination, axial length increased with borderline significance (p = 0.064). Macular volume and retinal thickness did not change. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness after exposure to 1000 lux of illumination (245.37 +/- 52.84 mum) was significantly lower than that after 150 lux of illumination (268.00 +/- 57.10 mum), (p < 0.001). Significant diurnal variations were found in mean keratometry (p = 0.039), intraocular pressure (IOP, p = 0.003), ocular perfusion pressure (OPP, p < 0.0001), macular volume (p = 0.019), and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.0001). A high level of illumination had significant effects on only IOP and OPP (p = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively). Bright light exposure before sleep at an intensity as high as 1000 lux reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy young men. In conclusion, diurnal variation in choroidal thickness can be affected by bright light exposure before sleep.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, South Korea. Electronic address: ojr4991@korea.ac.kr
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28887137 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1729
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Author Berman, S.
Title Opinion: Whither V(λ)? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 51 Issue 1 Pages 4-4
Keywords (down) Vision
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2219
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Author Alaimo, A.; Linares, G.G.; Bujjamer, J.M.; Gorojod, R.M.; Alcon, S.P.; Martinez, J.H.; Baldessari, A.; Grecco, H.E.; Kotler, M.L.
Title Toxicity of blue led light and A2E is associated to mitochondrial dynamics impairment in ARPE-19 cells: implications for age-related macular degeneration Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Archives of Toxicology Abbreviated Journal Arch Toxicol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (down) Vision
Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial retinal disease characterized by a progressive loss of central vision. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is a critical event in AMD. It has been associated to A2E accumulation, which sensitizes RPE to blue light photodamage. Mitochondrial quality control mechanisms have evolved to ensure mitochondrial integrity and preserve cellular homeostasis. Particularly, mitochondrial dynamics involve the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion to preserve a healthy mitochondrial network. The present study aims to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying photodamage-induced RPE cell death with particular focus on the involvement of defective mitochondrial dynamics. Light-emitting diodes irradiation (445 +/- 18 nm; 4.43 mW/cm(2)) significantly reduced the viability of both unloaded and A2E-loaded human ARPE-19 cells and increased reactive oxygen species production. A2E along with blue light, triggered apoptosis measured by MC540/PI-flow cytometry and activated caspase-3. Blue light induced mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance towards mitochondrial fragmentation in both non-loaded and A2E-loaded cells which correlated with the deregulation of mitochondria-shaping proteins level (OPA1, DRP1 and OMA1). To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting that photodamage causes mitochondrial dynamics deregulation in RPE cells. This process could possibly contribute to AMD pathology. Our findings suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics may be a valuable strategy for treating retinal degeneration diseases, such as AMD.
Address Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Quimica Biologica Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (IQUIBICEN), CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina. kotler@qb.fcen.uba.ar
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ISSN 0340-5761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30778631 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2229
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