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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M.
Title Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords (down) Vision
Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2499
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Author Davoudian, N.; Raynham, P.; Barrett, E.
Title Disability glare: A study in simulated road lighting conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 46 Issue 6 Pages 695-705
Keywords (down) Vision
Abstract Disability glare is associated with veiling luminance caused by light from bright sources being scattered within the eyes of observers, thereby reducing retinal luminance contrast. This study compares the reduction in observers’ performance in the presence of glare with veiling luminance in the eye, calculated using a non-subjective method. A total of 42 observers performed a target detection task in the presence of a glare source in conditions similar to street lighting at night. Luminance contrast thresholds were measured for each observer under different levels of glare. Results show that, while veiling luminance has a significant effect on the performance of observers, its effect is lower than expected from contrast loss. Furthermore, the performance of observers over the age of 50 is unaffected by increasing the glare level.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2526
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Author Davoudian, N.
Title Background lighting clutters: how do they affect visual saliency of urban objects? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation
Volume 5 Issue 1-2 Pages 95-103
Keywords (down) Vision
Abstract The current study aims to create some general guidance for designers to better understand the impact of background lighting in their design and as a result minimize its effect on the visual saliency of urban objects. There are few studies about how lighting clutters can affect and decrease the visual saliency of illuminated urban objects at night. Lack of information in this area has resulted in increasing luminance to be recognized as one of the main tools to enhance the saliency of urban objects at night. To address this matter a study was performed to investigate the effect of proximity of lighting clutters on visual saliency of urban objects. A forced choice pair comparison method was employed, in which two test images of an urban object in different conditions of luminance contrast and proximity of light patterns were compared. Test participants reported in which image the target appeared more salient. Results show there is a progressive increase in saliency value by increasing the gap between the target and the background lighting when the luminance contrast of the target is three or higher. However, the critical area around the object with the highest effect lies between 0.5° and 1° visual angle. Removing light patterns beyond that point creates negligible effect. The findings of this study could inform development of future models of visual recognition in the road environment, models which can address the important effects of environmental context in addition to photometric variables (luminance and contrast) that are the only factors considered in traditional models of ‘Visibility Level.’
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2165-0349 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2527
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Author Zhao, N.; Samson, E.L.
Title Estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products using nighttime imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation
Volume 18 Issue Pages 243-250
Keywords (down) Virtual water; Nighttime imagery; Lit area; Urban population; International trade product; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; light at night
Abstract Freshwater that is consumed in the process of producing a commodity is called virtual water – it represents all water use contained in that commodity. In social systems, water resources can flow when commodities are traded from one region to another. Quantitative monitoring and assessing virtual water flow related to international trade products is an important issue to comprehensively understand the balance of global water resources. In this study we tested the potential of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime images in conjunction with the LandScan population dataset for estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products. Lit area (areal extent of night lights) and urban population were selected as proxies to estimate export virtual water (EVW), import virtual water (IVW), and traded virtual water (TVW) (summed EVW and IVW), respectively, on the national level. The results showed that IVW can be more accurately estimated than EVW regardless of lit area or urban population. Lit area is normally more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developed countries than those of developing countries, but urban population is more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developing countries than those of developed countries. Urban population is a better proxy than total population for estimations of virtual water. This study makes a negative finding in that there are relatively large underestimations for developed countries. Another negative finding is that neither lit area nor urban population can be used to estimate net import virtual water (NIVW).
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ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 224
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Author Johnson, R.S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E.J.; Miller, S.D.; Reid, J.S.
Title Preliminary investigations toward nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals from the VIIRS Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.
Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 1245-1255
Keywords (down) VIIRS; remote sensing; Suomi NPP; aerosol; optical depth; AERONET; light pollution; measurements
Abstract A great need exists for reliable nighttime aerosol products at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this concept demonstration study, using Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) observations on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, a new method is proposed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical depth (τ) using the contrast between regions with and without artificial surface lights. Evaluation of the retrieved τ values against daytime AERONET data from before and after the overpass of the VIIRS satellite over the Cape Verde, Grand Forks, and Alta Floresta AERONET stations yields a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.71. This study suggests that the VIIRS DNB has the potential to provide useful nighttime aerosol detection and property retrievals.
Address Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
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ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 200
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