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Author Silva, A.D.; Diez‐Méndez, D.; Kempenaers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of experimental night lighting on the daily timing of winter foraging in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue Pages 862-871  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract The ecological effects of light pollution are becoming better understood, especially in birds. Recent studies have shown that several bird species can use street lighting to extend activity into the night during the breeding season. However, most of these studies are correlational and little is known about the effects of artificial night lighting on the timing of activities outside the breeding season. During winter, low temperatures and short days may limit foraging opportunities and can negatively affect survival of resident birds. However, night lighting may allow them to expand the time niche available for foraging. Here, we report on a study where we repeatedly manipulated the amount of night lighting during early winter at automated feeding stations in a natural forest. We used video-recordings at the feeders to determine the time of the first (at dawn) and last (at dusk) foraging visits for six songbird species. We predicted that all species, and in particular the naturally early-foraging species, would advance their daily onset of foraging during the mornings with night lighting, but would show minimal or no delays in their daily cessation of foraging during the lighted evenings. We found that two early-foraging species, the blue tit and the great tit, started foraging earlier during the experimentally lighted mornings. However, in great tits, this effect was weak and restricted to nights with inclement weather. The light treatment did not have any effect on the start of foraging in the willow/marsh tit, the nuthatch, the European jay, and the blackbird. Artificial night lighting did not cause later foraging at dusk in any of the six species. Overall, our results suggest that artificial light during winter has only small effects on timing of foraging. We discuss these findings and the importance of temperature and winter weather in shaping the observed foraging patterns.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1627  
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Author Last, K. S.; Hobbs, L.; Berge, J.; Brierley, A. S.; Cottier, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Moonlight Drives Ocean-Scale Mass Vertical Migration of Zooplankton during the Arctic Winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 244-251  
  Keywords (up) animals  
  Abstract In extreme high-latitude marine environments that are without solar illumination in winter, light-mediated patterns of biological migration have historically been considered non-existent [ 1 ]. However, diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton has been shown to occur even during the darkest part of the polar night, when illumination levels are exceptionally low [ 2, 3 ]. This paradox is, as yet, unexplained. Here, we present evidence of an unexpected uniform behavior across the entire Arctic, in fjord, shelf, slope and open sea, where vertical migrations of zooplankton are driven by lunar illumination. A shift from solar-day (24-hr period) to lunar-day (24.8-hr period) vertical migration takes place in winter when the moon rises above the horizon. Further, mass sinking of zooplankton from the surface waters and accumulation at a depth of ∼50 m occurs every 29.5 days in winter, coincident with the periods of full moon. Moonlight may enable predation of zooplankton by carnivorous zooplankters, fish, and birds now known to feed during the polar night [ 4 ]. Although primary production is almost nil at this time, lunar vertical migration (LVM) may facilitate monthly pulses of carbon remineralization, as they occur continuously in illuminated mesopelagic systems [ 5 ], due to community respiration of carnivorous and detritivorous zooplankton. The extent of LVM during the winter suggests that the behavior is highly conserved and adaptive and therefore needs to be considered as “baseline” zooplankton activity in a changing Arctic ocean [ 6–9 ].  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1329  
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Author Okuliarova, M.; Molcan, L.; Zeman, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Decreased emotional reactivity of rats exposed to repeated phase shifts of light-dark cycle Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiology & Behavior  
  Volume 156 Issue Pages 16-23  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Disturbed light–dark (LD) cycles are associated with circadian disruption of physiological and behavioural rhythms and in turn with an increased risk of disease development. However, direct causal links and underlying mechanisms leading to negative health consequences still need to be revealed. In the present study, we exposed male Wistar rats to repeated phase shifts of LD cycle and analysed their ability to cope with mild emotional stressors. In experiment 1, rats were submitted to either a regular 12:12 LD cycle (CTRL rats) or 8-h phase delay shifts applied every 2 days for 5 weeks (SHIFT rats). Subsequently, the behaviour was examined in the open-field, black–white box and elevated plus maze tests. In experiment 2, changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) as well as the activity of autonomic nervous system were measured in telemeterised rats in response to open-field and black–white box tests before and after 5-week exposure to shifted LD regime. Locomotor activity was consistently higher in SHIFT than CTRL rats in in the open-field and black–white box tests. Interestingly, in the elevated plus maze, SHIFT rats displayed increased risk assessment and decreased grooming compared to CTRL rats. Anxiety measures were affected only in the black–white box, where SHIFT rats displayed reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to CTRL rats. Differences in behavioural reactivity between SHIFT and CTRL rats did not correspond with BP and HR changes. However, exposure to phase shifts increased the sympathovagal reactivity in the black–white box. Together, our results demonstrated that disturbed LD conditions decreased emotional reactivity of rats and affected their ability to cope with emotional stressors denoting an additional risk mechanism linking disrupted circadian organisation to adverse health effects.  
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  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1331  
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Author Honnen, A.-C.; Johnston, P.R.; Monaghan, M.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex-specific gene expression in the mosquito Culex pipiens f. molestus in response to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication BMC Genomics Abbreviated Journal BMC Genomics  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 22  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a typical feature of urban areas and most organisms living in urban or suburban habitats are exposed to low levels of ALAN. Light is one of the most important environmental cues that organisms use to regulate their activities. Studies have begun to quantify the influence of ALAN on the behavior and ecology of organisms, but research on the effects at the molecular level remains limited. Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera, Culicidae) are widespread and abundant in urban areas where they are potential disease vectors. It is thus of particular interest to understand how ALAN may influence biologically and ecologically relevant traits. RESULTS: We used RNAseq to evaluate the transcriptome response in a Cx. pipiens f. molestus laboratory population that was exposed to near-natural light conditions (light:dark L16:D8 hours, “control”) and ALAN conditions with 3 h of constant low-level light at night (L16 + Llow3:D5 hours, “low-light”). The resulting transcripts were mapped to the reference genome of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Female expression patterns differed significantly between control and treatment conditions at five genes although none showed an absolute fold change greater than two (FC > 2). In contrast, male expression differed at 230 genes (74 with FC > 2). Of these, 216 genes (72 with FC > 2) showed reduced expression in the low-light treatment, most of which were related to gametogenesis, lipid metabolism, and immunity. Of the 14 genes (two with FC > 2) with increased expression, only five had any functional annotation. There was a pronounced sex-bias in gene expression regardless of treatment, with 11,660 genes (51 % of annotated genes; 8694 with FC > 2; 48 % of annotated genes) differentially expressed between males and females, including 14 genes of the circadian clock. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a stronger response to artificial light by males of Cx. pipiens f. molestus than by females, and that a wide range of physiological pathways may be affected by ALAN at the molecular level. The fact that differences in gene expression appear to be sex-specific may have a strong influence at the population level.  
  Address Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research, Konigin-Luise-Strasse 6-8, 14195, Berlin, Germany  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2164 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26728786; PMCID:PMC4700752 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1332  
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Author Hüppop, O.; Hilgerloh, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Flight call rates of migrating thrushes: effects of wind conditions, humidity and time of day at an illuminated offshore platform Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Avian Biology  
  Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 85-90  
  Keywords (up) Animals  
  Abstract Many bird species call during migration, but call rates not necessarily reflect migration intensity. They rather seem to increase under deteriorating flight conditions. Often, nocturnal mass collisions at illuminated structures coincide with such conditions and are accompanied with high call rates of migrants. Thus, call rates could act as an indicator for situations with high collision risk for birds namely at off shore sites with hardly any alternatives for landing. In the face of increasing numbers of off shore wind farms knowledge about the environmental conditions in which maximum call rates occur, is needed for mitigation measures.

In this first long-term study at an off shore site in the southern North Sea we investigated the effect of weather on the frequency of flight calls of three thrush-species at an illuminated platform. Flight calls were registered automatically during three autumn migration seasons. Besides generally higher call rates from 5 to 2 h before until 6 h after midnight, call rates increased with tailwinds, a change of the tailwind component during the first part of the night, off shore crosswinds and very high humidity.

A monitoring programme is suggested that could help to reduce mass mortalities at illuminated structures.
 
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1396  
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