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Author Ho, C.Y.; Lin, H.T.; Huang, K.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Study on Energy Saving and Light Pollution of LED Advertising Signs Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Applied Mechanics and Materials Abbreviated Journal Amm  
  Volume 121-126 Issue Pages 2979-2984  
  Keywords (up) Advertising Sign; LED; Light Trespass; Luminance Limit; Saving Energy; Vertical Illuminance; *Lighting  
  Abstract Lighting advertising signs not only play an important role in outdoor lighting environment in Taiwan, but also become the main factor of energy consumption in urban areas at night. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been gradually used in advertising signs due to its advantages. However, in order to be conspicuous and legible in the daytime, signs that are excessively bright may result in considerable light pollution and energy waste at nighttime. Therefore, this research aims to measure the luminance of LED signs and traditional internally lighted signs, and analyze the light trespass from each signage. Based on the research results, the energy consumption from a LED full color screen is 12 times more than a traditional internally lighted sign per day. Statistically, all kinds of LED signs are much higher than traditional internally lighted signs in the percentage of excessive brightness and average luminance value. As for the light trespass, since the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs increases with the increase of the sign area or the decrease of the distance between the sign and the facade, the vertical illuminance on facade facing the signs would exceed the limit of CIE even if the luminance of the signs achieves the standard of CIE in terms of the general conditions in Taiwan. This happens to LED full color screens in particular and thus results in considerable obtrusive light. To sum up, in order to reduce unnecessary energy consumption and improve the nighttime lighting quality for outdoor environment, this research recommends the luminance limitation for light dimming of LED advertising signs should refer to the zoning, time period, and sign area.  
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  ISSN 1662-7482 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 126  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 116 Issue D24 Pages  
  Keywords (up) aeroecology; ecological light pollution; light pollution; moonlight; nocturnal navigation; polarized light  
  Abstract On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow pwould likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.  
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  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 21  
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Author Kunz, T.H.; Gauthreaux, S.A.J.; Hristov, N.I.; Horn, J.W.; Jones, G.; Kalko, E.K.V.; Larkin, R.P.; McCracken, G.F.; Swartz, S.M.; Srygley, R.B.; Dudley, R.; Westbrook, J.K.; Wikelski, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aeroecology: probing and modeling the aerosphere Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Integrative and Comparative Biology Abbreviated Journal Integr Comp Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 1-11  
  Keywords (up) aeroecology; light; biology  
  Abstract Aeroecology is a discipline that embraces and integrates the domains of atmospheric science, ecology, earth science, geography, computer science, computational biology, and engineering. The unifying concept that underlies this emerging discipline is its focus on the planetary boundary layer, or aerosphere, and the myriad of organisms that, in large part, depend upon this environment for their existence. The aerosphere influences both daily and seasonal movements of organisms, and its effects have both short- and long-term consequences for species that use this environment. The biotic interactions and physical conditions in the aerosphere represent important selection pressures that influence traits such as size and shape of organisms, which in turn facilitate both passive and active displacements. The aerosphere also influences the evolution of behavioral, sensory, metabolic, and respiratory functions of organisms in a myriad of ways. In contrast to organisms that depend strictly on terrestrial or aquatic existence, those that routinely use the aerosphere are almost immediately influenced by changing atmospheric conditions (e.g., winds, air density, precipitation, air temperature), sunlight, polarized light, moon light, and geomagnetic and gravitational forces. The aerosphere has direct and indirect effects on organisms, which often are more strongly influenced than those that spend significant amounts of time on land or in water. Future advances in aeroecology will be made when research conducted by biologists is more fully integrated across temporal and spatial scales in concert with advances made by atmospheric scientists and mathematical modelers. Ultimately, understanding how organisms such as arthropods, birds, and bats aloft are influenced by a dynamic aerosphere will be of importance for assessing, and maintaining ecosystem health, human health, and biodiversity.  
  Address *Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK; Department of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069, Ulm, Germany; Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA; **USDA-ARS, 1500 N. Central Avenue, Sidney, MT 59270, USA; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; USDA-ARS, 2771 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, USA  
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  ISSN 1540-7063 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21669768 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 19  
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Author LeGates, T.A.; Altimus, C.M.; Wang, H.; Lee, H.-K.; Yang, S.; Zhao, H.; Kirkwood, A.; Weber, E.T.; Hattar, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 491 Issue 7425 Pages 594-598  
  Keywords (up) Affect/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Body Temperature Regulation/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cognition/drug effects/physiology/radiation effects; Corticosterone/metabolism; Depression/etiology/physiopathology; Desipramine/pharmacology; Fluoxetine/pharmacology; Learning/drug effects/physiology/*radiation effects; *Light; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects; Male; Memory/physiology/radiation effects; Mice; Photoperiod; Retinal Ganglion Cells/drug effects/*metabolism/*radiation effects; *Rod Opsins/analysis; Sleep/physiology; Wakefulness/physiology  
  Abstract The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear. Here we show, using an aberrant light cycle that neither changes the amount and architecture of sleep nor causes changes in the circadian timing system, that light directly regulates mood-related behaviours and cognitive functions in mice. Animals exposed to the aberrant light cycle maintain daily corticosterone rhythms, but the overall levels of corticosterone are increased. Despite normal circadian and sleep structures, these animals show increased depression-like behaviours and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. Administration of the antidepressant drugs fluoxetine or desipramine restores learning in mice exposed to the aberrant light cycle, suggesting that the mood deficit precedes the learning impairments. To determine the retinal circuits underlying this impairment of mood and learning, we examined the behavioural consequences of this light cycle in animals that lack intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In these animals, the aberrant light cycle does not impair mood and learning, despite the presence of the conventional retinal ganglion cells and the ability of these animals to detect light for image formation. These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.  
  Address Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA  
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  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23151476; PMCID:PMC3549331 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 238  
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Author Sharkey, K.M.; Carskadon, M.A.; Figueiro, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 685-692  
  Keywords (up) Affect/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology/*radiation effects; Color; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Photoperiod; Phototherapy/*methods; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/physiology/radiation effects; Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/prevention & control/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/prevention & control/therapy; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult; blue light  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age+/-SD=21.8+/-3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). METHODS: After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive “blue” (470nm, approximately 225lux, n=12) or “dim” (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn “Daysimeters” measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2x2 ANOVA. RESULTS: After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean+/-SD) were 1.5+/-1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4+/-0.7h in the blue light group. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Box G-RIH, Providence, RI 02912, USA. katherine_sharkey@brown.edu  
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  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21704557; PMCID:PMC3145013 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 303  
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