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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460
Keywords (up) *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization
Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.
Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209
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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.
Title Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Abbreviated Journal Environ Monit Assess
Volume 184 Issue 4 Pages 2537-2557
Keywords (up) *Cities; Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation/*methods; *Environmental Pollution; Hong Kong; Humans; *Light
Abstract Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.
Address Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. jcspun@hku.hk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0167-6369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21713499 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 258
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A.
Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev
Volume 2 Issue Pages 30
Keywords (up) *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety
Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.
Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251
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Author Rakshit, K.; Thomas, A.P.; Matveyenko, A.V.
Title Does disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes? Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Current Diabetes Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Diab Rep
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 474
Keywords (up) *epidemiology; diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; beta cell; T2DM; artificial light; light exposure; circadian disruption
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor for T2DM is the disruption of circadian rhythms (eg, shift-work and sleep loss). In recent years, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent in modern societies and consistently shown to augment T2DM susceptibility (partly mediated through its effects on pancreatic beta-cells). Since beta-cell failure is essential for development of T2DM, we will review current work from epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies designed to gain insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the predisposition to beta-cell failure associated with circadian disruption. Elucidating the role of circadian clocks in regulating beta-cell health will add to our understanding of T2DM pathophysiology and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
Address Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, 900A Weyburn Place, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1534-4827 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24532160; PMCID:PMC3988110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 320
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Author Zheng, Q.; Weng, Q.; Wang, K.
Title Correcting the Pixel Blooming Effect (PiBE) of DMSP-OLS nighttime light imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 240 Issue Pages 111707
Keywords (up) *instrumentation; Remote Sensing
Abstract In the last two decades, the advance in nighttime light (NTL) remote sensing has fueled a surge in extensive research towards mapping human footprints. Nevertheless, the full potential of NTL data is largely constrained by the blooming effect. In this study, we propose a new concept, the Pixel Blooming Effect (PiBE), to delineate the mutual influence of lights from a pixel and its neighbors, and an integrated framework to eliminate the PiBE in radiance calibrated DMSP-OLS datasets (DMSPgrc). First, lights from isolated gas flaring sources and a Gaussian model were used to model how the PiBE functions on each pixel through point spread function (PSF). Second, a two-stage deblurring approach (TSDA) was developed to deconvolve DMSPgrc images with Tikhonov regularization to correct the PiBE and reconstruct PiBE-free images. Third, the proposed framework was assessed by synthetic data and VIIRS imagery and by testing the resulting image with two applications. We found that high impervious surface fraction pixels (ISF > 0.6) were impacted by the highest absolute magnitude of PiBE, whereas NTL pattern of low ISF pixels (ISF < 0.2) was more sensitive to the PiBE. By using TSDA the PiBE in DMSPgrc images was effectively corrected which enhanced data variation and suppressed pseudo lights from non-built-up pixels in urban areas. The reconstructed image had the highest similarity to reference data from synthetic image (SSIM = 0.759) and VIIRS image (r = 0.79). TSDA showed an acceptable performance for linear objects (width > 1.5 km) and circular objects (radius > 0.5 km), and for NTL data with different noise levels (<0.6σ). In summary, the proposed framework offers a new opportunity to improve the quality of DMSP-OLS images and subsequently will be conducive to NTL-based applications, such as mapping urban extent, estimating socioeconomic variables, and exploring eco-impact of artificial lights.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2940
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