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Author Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.X.; Erren, T.C.; Fuentes-Broto, L.; Paredes, S.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-mediated perturbations of circadian timing and cancer risk: a mechanistic analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Integrative Cancer Therapies Abbreviated Journal Integr Cancer Ther  
  Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages 354-360  
  Keywords (up) *Circadian Rhythm; Humans; Light/*adverse effects; Melatonin/antagonists & inhibitors; Neoplasms/*etiology/physiopathology; Risk Factors; Sleep Deprivation/complications; oncogenesis  
  Abstract In industrialized countries, certain types of cancer, most notably, breast and prostate, are more frequent than in poorly developed nations. This high cancer frequency is not explained by any of the conventional causes. Within the past decade, numerous reports have appeared that link light at night with an elevated cancer risk. The three major consequences of light at night are sleep deprivation, chronodisruption, and melatonin suppression. Each of these individually or in combination may contribute to the reported rise in certain types of cancer. In this article, the potential mechanisms underlying the basis of the elevated cancer risk are briefly discussed. Finally, if cancer is a consequence of excessive nighttime light, it is likely that other diseases/conditions may also be exaggerated by the widespread use of light after darkness onset.  
  Address Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. reiter@uthscsa.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1534-7354 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20042411 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 290  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Landgraf, D.; McCarthy, M.J.; Welsh, D.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of the circadian clock in animal models of mood disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Behavioral Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Behav Neurosci  
  Volume 128 Issue 3 Pages 344-359  
  Keywords (up) *Circadian Rhythm; mood; mood disorders; circadian disruption  
  Abstract An association between circadian clock function and mood regulation is well established and has been proposed as a factor in the development of mood disorders. Patients with depression or mania suffer disturbed sleep-wake cycles and altered rhythms in daily activities. Environmentally disrupted circadian rhythms increase the risk of mood disorders in the general population. However, proof that a disturbance of circadian rhythms is causally involved in the development of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Using clock gene mutants, manipulations of sleep-wake and light-dark cycles, and brain lesions affecting clock function, animal models have been developed to investigate whether circadian rhythm disruptions alter mood. In this review, selected animal models are examined to address the issue of causality between circadian rhythms and affective behavior.  
  Address Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0735-7044 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24660657 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 316  
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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords (up) *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Abbreviated Journal Environ Monit Assess  
  Volume 184 Issue 4 Pages 2537-2557  
  Keywords (up) *Cities; Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation/*methods; *Environmental Pollution; Hong Kong; Humans; *Light  
  Abstract Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.  
  Address Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. jcspun@hku.hk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0167-6369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21713499 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 258  
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords (up) *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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