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Author Santos, C.D.; Miranda, A.C.; Granadeiro, J.P.; Lourenço, P.M.; Saraiva, S.; Palmeirim, J.M.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Acta Oecologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Oecologica
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 166-172
Keywords waders; light pollution; animals
Abstract Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1146609X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 46
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Author Rojas, L.M.; McNeil, R.; Cabana, T.; Lachapelle, P.
Title Diurnal and Nocturnal Visual Capabilities in Shorebirds as a Function of Their Feeding Strategies Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain Behav Evol
Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 29-43
Keywords foraging; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus; Territorial Willets; Black-winged Stilt; Himantopus himantopus; Scolopax minor; Limnodromus griseus; birds; Wilson's Plover; Charadrius wilsonia; Short-billed Dowitcher; Limnodromus griseus
Abstract Some shorebird species forage with the same feeding strategy at night and during daytime, e.g. visual pecking in the Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia) or tactile probing in the Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus). The Limnodromus griseus (Scolopax minor) uses tactile probing, by day and by night, but sometimes pecks for insects during daytime. The Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a visual pecker, both by day and by night, and sometimes forages tactilely on windy (agitated water surface) moonless nights. Territorial Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) are visual peckers during daylight and on moonlight conditions but switch to tactile feeding under lower light conditions. It could be postulated that some shorebird species would switch from visual feeding during daytime to tactile foraging at night because they have poor night vision compared to species that are always sight foragers irrespective of the time of the day. This issue was examined by comparing retinal structure and function in the above species. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained at different light intensities from anesthetized birds, and the retinae were processed for histological observations. Based on ERGs, retinal sensitivity, and rod:cone ratios, both plovers and stilts are well adapted for nocturnal vision. Although they have low rod density compared to that of stilts and plovers, Willets and woodcocks have a scotopic retinal sensitivity similar to that of stilts and plovers but rank midway between plovers and dowitchers for the b-wave amplitude. Dowitchers have the lowest scotopic b-wave amplitude and retinal sensitivity and appear the least well adapted for night vision. Based on photopic ERGs and cone densities, although stilts, Willets and dowitchers appear as well adapted for daytime vision, plovers occupy the last rank of all species examined. Compared to the nighttime tactile feeders and those that switch from daytime visual pecking to tactile feeding at night, nighttime sight feeders have a superior rod function and, consequently, potentially superior nocturnal visual capabilities.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-8977 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 47
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Author Jetz, W.; Steffen, J.; Linsenmair, K.E.
Title Effects of light and prey availability on nocturnal, lunar and seasonal activity of tropical nightjars Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal Oikos
Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 627-639
Keywords foraging; Caprimulgus climacurus; birds; nightjars; standard-winged nightjar; Macrodipteryx longipennis; long-tailed nightjar
Abstract Nightjars and their allies represent the only major group of visually hunting aerial insectivores with a crepuscular and/or nocturnal lifestyle. Our purpose was to examine how both light regime and prey abundance in the tropics, where periods of twilight are extremely short, but nightjar diversity is high, affect activity across different temporal scales. We studied two nightjar species in West African bush savannah, standard-winged nightjars Macrodipteryx longipennis Shaw and long-tailed nightjars Caprimulgus climacurus Vieillot. We measured biomass of potential prey available using a vehicle mounted trap and found that it was highest at dusk and significantly lower at dawn and during the night. Based on direct observations, both nightjars exhibit the most intense foraging behaviour at dusk, less intense foraging at dawn and least at night, as predicted by both prey abundance and conditions for visual prey detection. Nocturnal foraging was positively correlated with lunar light levels and ceased below about 0.03 mW m−2. Over the course of a lunar cycle, nocturnal light availability varied markedly, while prey abundance remained constant at dusk and at night was slightly higher at full moon. Both species increased twilight foraging activity during new moon periods, compensating for the shorter nocturnal foraging window at that time. Seasonally, the pattern of nocturnal light availability was similar throughout the year, while prey availability peaked shortly after onset of the wet season and then slowly decreased over the following four months. The courtship and breeding phenology of both species was timed to coincide with the peak in aerial insect abundance, suggesting that prey availability rather than direct abiotic factors act as constraints, at least at the seasonal level. Our findings illustrate the peculiar constraints on visually orienting aerial nocturnal insectivores in general and tropical nightjars in particular and highlight the resulting nocturnal, lunar and seasonal allocation of activities.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0030-1299 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 48
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Author Baker, G.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.
Title Lunar synchrony in the reproduction of the Moluccan Megapode Megapodius wallacei Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 142 Issue 3 Pages 382-388
Keywords Moluccan Megapode; Megapodius wallacei; birds; nesting; reproduction; animals; *Moon
Abstract The Moluccan Megapode Megapodius wallacei uses heat generated by the sun to incubate its eggs. It buries the eggs deep in the sand of sun-exposed beaches and open sandy areas on islands in the Moluccas, Indonesia. The eggs are laid at night and left to incubate for two to three months without parental care. We present evidence that the Moluccan Megapode exhibits lunar synchrony in the timing of egg-laying, its spatial distribution of egg burrows and in its behaviour at communal nesting grounds. More Moluccan Megapodes visit the nesting grounds on bright nights than during the new moon. Data collected on the spatial distribution and depth of egg burrows also exhibit lunar periodicity. On moonlit nights, the birds excavate burrows in communal groups and spend longer at the nesting ground digging deeper burrows. Lunaphilia and lunar periodicity of reproduction are rarely documented in birds. We discuss possible explanations for these behaviours in the Moluccan Megapode.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 52
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Author Glass, J.; Ryan, P.
Title Reduced seabird night strikes and mortality in the Tristan rock lobster fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication African Journal of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal African Journal of Marine Science
Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 589-592
Keywords storm petrels; Pelagodroma marina; Fregetta grallaria; Fregetta tropica; common diving petrel; Pelecanoides urinatrix; broad-billed prion; Pachyptila vittata; Tristan rock lobster; Jasus tristani; seabirds; birds; collision; Gough Island; Tristan
Abstract The main impact of the fishery for Tristan rock lobster Jasus tristani on seabirds at the Tristan archipelago and Gough Island is through night strikes, when petrels collide with a ship after being disorientated by its lights. Tristan fishery observers have kept records of night strikes on the MV Edinburgh since the 2010/2011 fishing season. Over the last three years, 723 seabirds from nine species were recorded coming aboard the fishing vessel, with at least 39 (5.4%) birds dying as a result. Birds killed were broad-billed prions Pachyptila vittata (41%), common diving petrels Pelecanoides urinatrix (23%), and storm petrels (Pelagodroma marina and Fregetta grallaria/tropica 36%). All these species are listed as Least Concern globally, and the numbers killed per year are <0.1% of the island populations. The captain and crew of the Edinburgh are aware of the problem posed by deck lights at night, and attempt to keep external lighting to a minimum. As a result, the numbers of birds coming aboard vessels in this fishery have decreased from an average of 130 birds per night in 1989 to less than two birds per night in 2010–2013. Currently, most incidents occur during exceptional events when circumstances require deck lights to be lit at night. Consideration should be given to banning fishing operations at night, at least on misty nights.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1814-232X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 53
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