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Author Bashiri, F.; Hassan, C.R.C.
Title Light Pollution and Its Effect on the Environment Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences Abbreviated Journal Intl. J. of Fundamental Phys. Sci.
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 8-12
Keywords Light pollution, human health, animal behaviour, plant growth
Abstract Light pollution can cause disturbance to humans as well as animals. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of light pollution on human's health, plants, animals, human body and People’s attitude about light pollution. About 90% of people strongly agreed that excessive lighting has adverse effects on a person's health. At least, 70% of people had difficulty in sleeping because of light pollution. Most of people believed that video Billboards, Spotlights, Car headlights and Street lights are the most important source of light pollution and about 60% of people agree that light pollution can affect animal’s sleep. 60% of people believed that excessive artificial light can attract several kinks of birds and insects. The results of this study indicate that the human health, plants growth and animal behaviour are strongly affected by the light pollution.‎
Address Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 313
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Author De Almeida, A.; Santos, B.; Paolo, B.; Quicheron, M.
Title Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Abbreviated Journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Volume 34 Issue Pages 30-48
Keywords Lighting; solid-state lighting; LED; lighting technology; review; Europe
Abstract According to IEA estimates, about 19% of the electricity used in the world is for lighting loads with a slightly smaller fraction used in the European Union (14%). Lighting was the first service offered by electric utilities and still continues to be one of the largest electrical end-uses. Most current lighting technologies can be vastly improved, and therefore lighting loads present a huge potential for electricity savings.

Solid State Lighting (SSL) is amongst the most energy-efficient and environmentally friendly lighting technology. SSL has already reached a high efficiency level (over 276 lm/W) at ever-decreasing costs. Additionally the lifetime of LED lamps is several times longer than discharge lamps. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art SSL technology trends.

SSL technology is evolving fast, which can bring many advantages to the lighting marketplace. However, there are still some market barriers that are hindering the high cost-effective potential of energy-efficient lighting from being achieved. This paper presents several strategies and recommendations in order to overcome existing barriers and promote a faster penetration of SSL. The estimated savings potential through the application of SSL lighting systems in the European Union (EU) is around 209 TWh, which translates into 77 million tonnes of CO2. The economic benefits translate into the equivalent annual electrical output of about 26 large power plants (1000 MW electric). Similar impacts, in terms of percentage savings, can be expected in other parts of the World.
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ISSN 1364-0321 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 319
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Author Bedrosian, T.A. (ed)
Title Circadian Disruption by Light at Night: Implications for Mood Type Book Whole
Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords circadian disruption; sleep; light at night; melanopsin; mood; mental health; Mood Disorders; epigenetics; red light
Abstract Life on Earth has adapted to a consistent 24-h solar cycle. Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior remain synchronized to the environment using light as the most potent entraining cue. During the past century, however, the widespread adoption of electric light has led to `round-the-clock’ societies. Instead of aligning with the environment, individuals follow artificial and often erratic light cycles created by social and work schedules. In particular, exposure to artificial light at night (LAN), termed “light pollution”, has become pervasive over the past 100 years. Virtually every individual living in the U.S. and Europe experiences this aberrant light exposure, and moreover about 20% of the population performs shift work. LAN may disrupt physiological timekeeping, leading to dysregulation of internal processes and misalignment between behavior and the environment. Recent evidence suggests that individuals exposed to excessive LAN, such as night shift workers, have increased risk for depressive disorders, but the biological mechanism remains unspecified. In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) project light information to (1) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, regulating circadian rhythms, and (2) to limbic regions, putatively regulating mood. Thus, LAN has the potential to affect both circadian timekeeping and mood. In this dissertation, I present evidence from rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that night-time exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood. First, I consider the physiological and behavioral consequences associated with unnatural exposure to LAN. The effects of LAN on circadian output are considered in terms of locomotor activity, the diurnal cortisol rhythm, and diurnal clock protein expression in the brain in Chapter 2. The influence of LAN on behavior and brain plasticity is discussed, with particular focus on depressive-like behavior (Chapter 3) and effects of SSRI treatment (Chapter 4). Effects of LAN on structural plasticity and gene expression in the brain are described, with emphasis on potential correlates of the depressive-like behavior observed under LAN in Chapter 5. Given the prevalence of LAN exposure and its importance, strategies for reversing the effects are offered. Specifically, eliminating LAN quickly reverses behavioral and physiological effects of exposure as described in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6 I report that administration of a pharmacological cytokine inhibitor prevents depressive-like behaviors in LAN, implicating brain inflammation in the behavioral effect. Finally, I demonstrate in Chapter 7 that exposure to red wavelength LAN reduces the effects on brain and behavior, suggesting that LAN acts through specific retinal pathways involving melanopsin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the consequences of LAN, but also outline potential avenues for prevention or intervention.
Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Bedrosian, T.A.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 323
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Author Fulop, P.; Hanuliak, P.; Mankova, L.
Title Case Study of Light Pollution in Urbanized Area of Slovakia Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Advanced Materials Research Abbreviated Journal Amr
Volume 899 Issue Pages 277-282
Keywords Slovakia; light pollution; light at night; public policy
Abstract This paper deals with the problem of light pollution and its potential impact on human body. Loss of darkness during the night has a negative effect on the environment, animals, plants and humans. Concerning humans, the light during the night can lead to desynchronization of circadian rhythms with subsequent lower production of sleeping hormone called melatonin. In addition to the negative impact on organisms, there is also economical effect of wastage of lighting during the night. Pollution caused by the occurrence of light during the night is relatively new term, which has been perceived very roughly so far. That is probably the reason, why Slovak legislation deals with this problem very roughly. Some limitation levels of illuminance of billboards were stated, but the legislation doesn ́t deal with the effect of the occurrence of higly influential light during the night on people at their homes.
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ISSN 1662-8985 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 325
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Skyglow: a retrieval of the approximate radiant intensity function of ground-based light sources Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 439 Issue 4 Pages 3405-3413
Keywords radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing; skyglow; modeling
Abstract The angular distribution of the light emitted from a city is an important source of information about public lighting systems and it also plays a key role in modelling the skyglow. Usually, the upwardly directed radiation is characterized through a parametrized emission function – a semi-empirical approach as a reasonable approximation that allows for fast computations. However, theoretical or experimental retrievals of emission characteristics are extremely difficult to obtain because of both the complexity of radiative transfer methods and/or the lack of highly specialized measuring devices.

Our research has been conducted with the specific objective to identify an efficient theoretical technique for retrieval of the emission pattern of ground-based light sources in order to determine the optimum values of the scaling parameters of the Garstang function. In particular, the input data involve the zenith luminance or radiance with horizontal illuminance or irradiance. Theoretical ratios of zenith luminance LV(0) to horizontal illuminance DV are calculated for a set of distances d that separate a hypothetical observer from the light source (a city or town). This approach is advantageous because inexpensive traditional equipment can be used to obtain the mean values of the Garstang parameters. Furthermore, it can also be applied to other parametrizable emission functions and to any measuring site, even one with a masked horizon.
Address Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 326
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