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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I.
Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express
Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056
Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic
Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.
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ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 351
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Author Dunnett, O,
Title Contested landscapes: the moral geographies of light pollution in Britain Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Cultural Geographies Abbreviated Journal Cultural Geographies
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 619-636
Keywords Light pollution; geography; darkness; moral geographies; urbanization
Abstract This paper considers the concept of light pollution and its connections to moral geographies of landscape in Britain. The paper aims to provide a greater understanding of light pollution in the present day, where the issue connects to policy debates about energy efficiency, crime, health, ecology and night time aesthetics, whilst also engaging with new areas of research in cultural geography. The main sources of investigation are the Campaign to Protect Rural England and the British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies (est. 1990). Using interviews, archival and textual analysis, the paper examines this anti-light-pollution lobby, looking at the lead-up to the formation of the Campaign as well as its ongoing influence. A moral geography of light pollution is identified, drawing on two interconnected discourses – a notion of the ‘astronomical sublime’ and the problem of urbanization. Whilst the former is often invoked, both through visual and linguistic means, by anti-light pollution campaigners, the latter is characterized as a threat to clear night skies, echoing earlier protests against urban sprawl. Complementing a growing area of research, the geographies of light and darkness, this paper considers the light pollution lobby as a way of investigating the fundamental relationship between humankind and the cosmos in the modern age.
Address School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Elmwood Avenue, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
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Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 353
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Author Gallaway, T.
Title On Light Pollution, Passive Pleasures, and the Instrumental Value of Beauty Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Economic Issues Abbreviated Journal Journal of Economic Issues
Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 71-88
Keywords ecomonics; skyglow
Abstract The night sky is a unique and exquisitely valuable cultural asset that is being lost to humanity. Light pollution obscures the heavens, interferes with wildlife, and wastes billions of dollars in energy annually. Light pollution can be easily mitigated, but unfortunately, it has gone largely unnoticed as a preventable environmental problem. This paper examines light pollution as well as the value of the night sky. The paper focuses on society's disregard for the loss of a cultural asset that has been a part of art, science, and culture for as long as these things have existed. It argues that the blame lies largely in an inability to articulate adequately the value of natural beauty. It is further argued that such beauty has instrumental value, and the explicit recognition of this value is an important step toward preserving the night sky and other objects of natural beauty.
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ISSN 0021-3624 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NwU @ megan.albaugh @ Serial 356
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Author Posudin, Y.
Title Measurement of Light Pollution Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters Abbreviated Journal
Volume Chapter 33 Issue Pages
Keywords Bortle scale; digital photography; light pollution; portable spectrophotometer; sky quality meter; SQM
Abstract Digital photography is based on the conversion of light by sensitive matrix (array of electronic photodetectors) to capture the image which is then digitized and stored as a computer file for further processing and printing. The spectral sensitivity of the cameras is in good agreement with the spectrum of action of the photosensitive hormone melatonin. Digital photography can be used to quantify light pollution acting on the physiology of living organisms. The chapter discusses the principles of spectrophotometry. A portable spectrophotometer for the measurement of light pollution is proposed by Cinzano. It consists of a cooled CCD camera and a small spectrographic head which is equipped with a De Amici prism composed of two external crown prisms and an inner Flint prism. Sky quality meter (SQM) is a portable photometer for measuring sky brightness and for light pollution monitoring. This device collects the light from a wide solid angle.
Address Department of Physics, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences, Ukraine
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Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 359
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Author Loveridge, A.; Duell, R.; Abbari, J.; Moffatt, M.
Title Night Landscapes: A Challenge to World Heritage Protocols Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Landscape Review Abbreviated Journal Landscape Rev.
Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 64-75
Keywords land management; starlight reserve; dark sky reserve; International Dark Sky Association; world heritage; landscape; parks
Abstract Starlight reserves are a relatively new concept whose definition and management protocols have come about in an era when understandings of human relationships with nature are dynamic and infused with cultural meaning. Rather than assuming that pristine nature can be sealed off from human influences, World Heritage guidelines now accept that our experience of nature may be enriched by attention to the multifunctional landscape, in which a blend of aesthetic, historical, cultural, scientific and environmental elements are carefully presented to tourists. Observatories and clear night skies are ideal sites for such an interface, and the loss of dark skies has led to new systems of audit aimed at their preservation. This

study of the potential for a World Heritage Site in the Mackenzie Basin, in the South Island of New Zealand, grounds the interaction between World Heritage goals and management of land use in a place where exceptional sky quality and competing land uses challenge multiple stakeholders to rethink their concepts of landscape
Address Department of Sociology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, Aotearoa New Zealand.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 360
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