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Author Haim, A.; Shanas, U.; Zubidad, A.E.S.; Scantelbury, M.
Title Seasonality and Seasons Out of Time--The Thermoregulatory Effects of Light Interference Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 59-66
Keywords *Photoperiod; Microtus socialis; voles; thermoregulation; biology; animals
Abstract The change in photoperiod is the main environmental cue for seasonal function of the reproductive, thermoregulatory, and immune systems in rodents existing outside of the tropics. In Israel, the social vole Microtus socialis breeds mainly under short photoperiod (SP) conditions. Previous studies showed that exposing voles to light interference (LI) in the field during the winter resulted in death. The aim of the current study was to determine the thermoregulatory response of SP-acclimated voles to LI. Therefore, heat production (VO2) at different ambient temperatures (Ta) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) were measured. Results show that LI of 15 min every 4h during the dark period significantly (p < 0.02) decreased VO2 at Ta = 15 degrees C and significantly (p < 0.05) decreased NST-capacity. These results can at least partly explain why LI-voles died during the winter under field conditions, through eliminating winter acclimatization of the thermoregulatory system, or what is considered as “seasons out of time.”
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 32
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Do artificially illuminated skies affect biodiversity in nocturnal landscapes? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1637-1640
Keywords skyglow; light pollution; biodiversity
Abstract The skyglow from cities at night is one of the most dramatic modifications that humans have made to Earth’s biosphere, and it is increasingly extending into nocturnal landscapes (nightscapes) far beyond urban areas. This scattered light is dim and homogenous compared to a lit street, but can be bright compared to natural celestial light sources, such as stars. Because of the large area of Earth affected by artificial skyglow, it is essential to verify whether skyglow is a selective pressure in nocturnal landscapes. We propose two scientific approaches that could examine whether skyglow affects biodiversity.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 35
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Author Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, B.; Lucas, M.P.
Title Trends in numbers of petrels attracted to artificial lights suggest population declines in Tenerife, Canary Islands: Rescue campaigns suggest petrel declines Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 154 Issue 1 Pages 167-172
Keywords birds; petrels; Cory's shearwater; Calonectris diomedea; Bulwer’s Petrel; Bulweria bulwerii; Macaronesian Shearwater; Puffinus baroli; reproductive strategies
Abstract The secretive breeding behaviour of petrels makes monitoring their breeding populations challenging. To assess population trends of Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea, Bulwer’s Petrel Bulweria bulwerii and Macaronesian Shearwater Puffinus baroli in Tenerife from 1990 to 2010, we used data from rescue campaigns that aim to reduce the mortality of fledgling petrels attracted to artificial lights as proxies for trends in breeding population size. Despite increases in human population size and light pollution, the number of rescued fledglings of Cory’s Shearwater and Bulwer’s Petrel increased and remained stable, respectively, whereas numbers of rescued Macaronesian Shearwaters sharply declined. In the absence of more accurate population estimates, these results suggest a worrying decline in the Macaronesian Shearwater’s breeding population.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 38
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Author Miller, M.W.
Title Apparent Effects of Light Pollution on Singing Behavior of American Robins Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal Condor
Volume 108 Issue 1 Pages 130
Keywords American Robin; birds; light pollution; morning chorus; dawn chorus; song; Turdus migratorius; animals; communication
Abstract Astronomers consider light pollution to be a growing problem, however few studies have addressed potential effects of light pollution on wildlife. Sunlight is believed to initiate song in many bird species. If light initiates song, then light pollution may be influencing avian song behavior at a population level. This hypothesis predicts that birds breeding in areas with large amounts of artificial light will begin singing earlier in the day than birds in areas with little artificial light. Birds in highly illuminated areas might begin singing earlier than did birds in those same areas in previous years when artificial light levels were known to be, or were presumably, lower. Also, birds should begin singing earlier within a site on brightly lit nights. In 2002 and 2003 I documented initiation of morning song by breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) in areas with differing intensity of artificial nocturnal light. I compared my observations among sites and against historical studies. Robin populations in areas with large amounts of artificial light frequently began their morning chorus during true night. Chorus initiation time, relative to civil twilight, was positively correlated with amount of artificial light present during true night. Robin choruses in areas with little, or presumably little, artificial light have almost never begun during true night, instead appearing to track the onset of civil twilight. Proliferation of artificial nocturnal light may be strongly affecting singing behavior of American Robins at a population level.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 39
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Author Santos, C.D.; Miranda, A.C.; Granadeiro, J.P.; Lourenço, P.M.; Saraiva, S.; Palmeirim, J.M.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Acta Oecologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Oecologica
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 166-172
Keywords waders; light pollution; animals
Abstract Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1146609X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 46
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