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Author Horváth, G.; Kriska, G.; Malik, P.; Robertson, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Polarized light pollution: a new kind of ecological photopollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 317-325  
  Keywords light pollution; polarization; polarized light pollution  
  Abstract The alteration of natural cycles of light and dark by artificial light sources has deleterious impacts on animals and ecosystems. Many animals can also exploit a unique characteristic of light – its direction of polarization –as a source of information. We introduce the term “polarized light pollution” (PLP) to focus attention on the ecological consequences of light that has been polarized through interaction with human-made objects. Unnatural polarized light sources can trigger maladaptive behaviors in polarization-sensitive taxa and alter ecological interactions. PLP is an increasingly common byproduct of human technology, and mitigating its effects through selective use of building materials is a realistic solution. Our understanding of how most species use polarization vision is limited, but the capacity of PLP to drastically increase mortality and reproductive failure in animal populations suggests that PLP should become a focus for conservation biologists and resource managers alike.  
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  ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 22  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lunar skylight polarization signal polluted by urban lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 116 Issue D24 Pages  
  Keywords aeroecology; ecological light pollution; light pollution; moonlight; nocturnal navigation; polarized light  
  Abstract On clear moonlit nights, a band of highly polarized light stretches across the sky at a 90 degree angle from the moon, and it was recently demonstrated that nocturnal organisms are able to navigate based on it. Urban skyglow is believed to be almost unpolarized, and is therefore expected to dilute this unique partially linearly polarized signal. We found that urban skyglow has a greater than expected degree of linear polarization (p = 8.6 ± 0.3%), and confirmed that its presence diminishes the natural lunar polarization signal. We also observed that the degree of linear polarization can be reduced as the moon rises, due to the misalignment between the polarization angles of the skyglow and scattered moonlight. Under near ideal observing conditions, we found that the lunar polarization signal was clearly visible (p = 29.2 ± 0.8%) at a site with minimal light pollution 28 km from Berlin's center, but was reduced (p = 11.3 ± 0.3%) within the city itself. Daytime measurements indicate that without skyglow pwould likely be in excess of 50%. These results indicate that nocturnal animal navigation systems based on perceiving polarized scattered moonlight likely fail to operate properly in highly light-polluted areas, and that future light pollution models must take polarization into account.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 21  
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Tapio, P.; Assmuth, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Unawareness in environmental protection: The case of light pollution from traffic Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Land Use Policy Abbreviated Journal Land Use Policy  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 598-604  
  Keywords Public Safety; public policy; traffic safety  
  Abstract New information is often emphasized as a basis of effective and scientifically sound environmental policy and management. However, outdated or incorrect information is not automatically nor instantly replaced by new insights. This article focuses on the various ways environmental information can be unintentionally left with insufficient attention or purposefully neglected. Energy-related emissions caused by road traffic in Finland are used as an illustrative example and light pollution caused by artificial lighting is identified as an emerging issue that has gained especially low recognition in the environmental agenda. Four different reasons for this lack of recognition are discussed: recognized unawareness, false awareness, deliberate unawareness and concealed awareness. Paying attention to light pollution is important because of various ecological, socio-cultural and economic effects but also because implementing measures aimed for reducing light pollution create possibilities for alleviating other social and environmental problems in transport and land use policies.  
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  ISSN 0264-8377 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 23  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Richardson, J.S.; Sadler, J.P.; Wolter, C.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 2 Issue 11 Pages art122  
  Keywords aquatic invertebrates; artificial illumination; ecosystems; fish; multiple stressors; riparian; streams; urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is gaining attention for its potential to alter ecosystems. Although terrestrial ecologists have observed that artificial light at night may disrupt migrations, feeding, and other important ecological functions, we know comparatively little about the role artificial light might play in disrupting freshwater and riparian ecosystems. We identify and discuss four future research domains that artificial light may influence in freshwater and associated terrestrial ecosystems, with an emphasis on running waters: (1) dispersal, (2) population genetics and evolution, (3) ecosystem functioning, and (4) potential interactions with other stressors. We suggest that future experimental and modeling studies should focus on the effects of different spectral emissions by different light sources on freshwater organisms, the spatial and temporal scale over which artificial light acts, and the magnitude of change in light at night across the landscape relative to the distribution of running and standing waters. Improved knowledge about the effects of artificial light on freshwater ecosystems will inform policy decisions about changes to artificial light spectral emissions and distributions.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00241.1
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 24  
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Author Rodrigues, P.; Aubrecht, C.; Gil, A.; Longcore, T.; Elvidge, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Remote sensing to map influence of light pollution on Cory's shearwater in São Miguel Island, Azores Archipelago Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Wildlife Research Abbreviated Journal Eur J Wildl Res  
  Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 147-155  
  Keywords birds; Calonectris diomedea; Cory's shearwater; Azores; light at night; light pollution  
  Abstract Global economic and population growth increase the extent and intensity of artificial night lighting. From an ecological perspective, this is light pollution, which causes changes in reproductive physiology, migration and foraging of many species and ultimately leads to loss of biodiversity. Some seabirds are intimately linked with the light features of their environments because they are nocturnally active. We report light-induced groundings of Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) during a 2-year study (2008 and 2009) in São Miguel Island, in the Azores archipelago, and investigate the spatial correlation of locations of grounded birds with an annual composite of remotely sensed stable lights. Results indicate that 16.7% of fledglings are attracted to lights. The exposure of shearwater colonies in the study area to artificial night lighting is low overall. Four colonies account for 87% of the grounded birds. The distance each bird was found from the closest colony was best explained by the ratio of the satellite-measured light levels at the grounding spot to the light levels at the assigned colony of origin. These results demonstrate that satellite-observed nighttime lights are sufficient to assess risk to marine birds at the scale of oceanic islands and indicate their utility for monitoring the effectiveness of programs to manage lighting to reduce risk for these species and conducting global assessments of species vulnerability. To minimize the impact on Cory’s shearwater and other marine birds, we recommend measures such as reduction and control of lighting intensity near colony locations, while continuing and re-enforcing rescue campaigns.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1612-4642 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 25  
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